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RichardB
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William Carnelley 1753-1819) who opened the Tontine Inn at No. 2 The Haymarket on the 6th June 1793 is my 4th great-grandfather.

William's daughter Elizabeth Carnelley (1781-1820) married John Beardsall (1772-1816). John was the son of Francis Beardsall (1742-1809), the proprietor of The Hotel at No. 1 Haymarket. So Elizabeth this was more than just married John, the boy next door. But this wasn't just the marriage of two young people but the uniting of two families with mutual business interests not only in the Sheffield inns but also in The Reindeer Inn in Hallgate, Doncaster.

John and Elizabeth's son, the Rev. Francis Carnelley Beardsall a pioneer of the Temperance movement, was actually born in the Tontine Inn. Unfortunately, both Elizabeth and John, my great-great-great-grandparents both died young, Elizabeth at 38 and John at 44. John died as a result of excessive drinking and squandered his father Francis' large estate and the family fortune.

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William Carnelley 1753-1819) who opened the Tontine Inn at No. 2 The Haymarket on the 6th June 1793 is my 4th great-grandfather. William's daughter Elizabeth Carnelley (1781-1820) married John Beardsall (1772-1816). John was the son of Francis Beardsall (1742-1809), the proprietor of The Hotel at No. 1 Haymarket. So Elizabeth this was more than just married John, the boy next door. But this wasn't just the marriage of two young people but the uniting of two families with mutual business interests not only in the Sheffield inns but also in The Reindeer Inn in Hallgate, Doncaster. John and Elizabeth's son, the Rev. Francis Carnelley Beardsall a pioneer of the Temperance movement, was actually born in the Tontine Inn. Unfortunately, both Elizabeth and John, my great-great-great-grandparents both died young, Elizabeth at 38 and John at 44. John died as a result of excessive drinking and squandered his father Francis' large estate and the family fortune.

Wecome to the site DaveB and thank you for that information.

it's always nice to heard the stories of members ancesters involved in the pub trade.

If there's anything else you remember please pass it on to us, thankyou. UKL

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Hi,

If its of interest, just posted this under troughs

The Tontine Trough

I have found my source-Sheffield Star 2010 May 25th. article by Rachael Clegg.

"Wolstenholme also bought a trough from the Tontine Inn....cut from a solid block of gritstone and could hold 400 gallons....enough to feed a dozen horses...one of the (Kenwood) gardens most famous features but as has since been removed"

Mike

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One of these then ?

Hi,

If its of interest, just posted this under troughs

The Tontine Trough

I have found my source-Sheffield Star 2010 May 25th. article by Rachael Clegg.

"Wolstenholme also bought a trough from the Tontine Inn....cut from a solid block of gritstone and could hold 400 gallons....enough to feed a dozen horses...one of the (Kenwood) gardens most famous features but as has since been removed"

Mike

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The following account of the Sheffield Tontine Inn by J.H. Stainton, although rather lengthy, is worth reading for the history and rules concerning the Tontine, a description of its accommodations and also the references to the Sheffield Reindeer Inn.

--ooOoo--

The Tontine Inn Book, 1850

This folio volume, stoutly bound in leather, closed by leathern thongs and bearing a simple inscription, "Tontine Inn Book, 1850." The book is divided into two parts: the first period is from the first proposal to build The Tontine, November 1st, 1782, up to October 26th, 1792, and the second period from January 24th, 1838, to October 25th, 1861.

The opening entry speaks for itself, and runs as follows:

"Proposed Proposals for building a large and commodious Inn and Tavern in the Town of Sheffield" (the distinction drawn between the two classes of accommodation now grouped together in the term hotel is worth noting).

The minute proceeds:

"First : That a subscription be set on foot for the purpose of undertaking and completing such new Intended Inn and Tavern.

Second: That each person willing to encourage the Scheme do subscribe thereto not less than the sum of £100 and That any person be at liberty to become a Subscriber until the Subscription shall be declared to be closed.

Third: That a Plot of Ground where the Castle Barns now stand, of such dimensions as the subscribers or the Major part of them in value shall think sufficient and convenient for the Design, be taken upon a Lease for 99 years.

Fourth: That, when the Subscription shall amount to £4,000 such Design or Plan of an Inn and Tavern be set about as shall be most approved of by the Subscribers at a Meeting for that Purpose to be called.

Fifth: That such Person or Persons be employed to undertake the buildings who shall agree to complete the same in the most workmanlike manner and on the most Moderate Terms and That in the execution of the whole Plainness and Simplicity of Stile be observed and Regard be chiefly paid to Convenience and Economy.

Sixth: That the Neat Rents and Profits of the said Inn and Tavern when completed shall be equally divided amongst the Subscribers in the way of a Tontine. That each Subscriber shall give in, at a future day to be appointed, for each share by him subscribed for his own Name or the Name or Names of such other Person or Persons with his her or their respective Age or Ages who shall be the Nominee or Nominees during whose Life or Lives and the said term of 99 years, each such Subscriber shall be entitled to receive an equal share or Dividend of the said neat Rents and Profits. That upon the Death of any Nominee or Nominees the Subscribers whose Nominee or Nominees shall be living shall be equally entitled thereto until the decease of all the Nominees but one when the Subscriber whose Nominee shall be the fortunate one to survive the rest, his or her Executors, Administrators or Assigns shall become entitled to the said Lease and all Benefit and Advantage thereof.

Seventh: That at the meetings of the Subscribers to be from time to time called such further Orders and Regulations be made and adopted as the Nature of the Business may seem to require and that all such Orders and Regulations as shall be at any time made and adopted shall be reduced to writing and duly entered in a book to be kept for that Purpose.

Eighth: That where there shall be a variety of opinions in any Business to be proposed to the consideration of the Subscribers the Majority of the Subscribers shall decide the Question and that all Absent Subscribers shall vote in any question by proxy if they shall think fit."

The minute ends with the words "We whose names are hereunto subscribed do hereby promise and agree to pay the respective sums set opposite to our respective Names for and towards the building and completing such Inn and Tavern as aforesaid Unto such Person and Persons and by such Instalments as shall from time to time be agreed upon amongst us. As witness our hands dated this first day of November, 1782."

Then follows the list of subscriptions:- Vincent Eyre for the Earl of Surrey £300; for Hy Howard Esq. £200; for himself £200; Edward Loftus £100; for Wllm Brightmore £100; and for John Bishop £100; Thos Gunning £100; Henry Tudor £100; James Wilkinson £100; John Parker £200; John Stacye £100; Robt Athorpe Athorpe £100; Ben Roebuck £6100; John Curr £100; Thomas Rawson £100; John Kenyon £100; John Read £100; John Morewood; £100; George Greaves £100; Jos. Matthewman £100; Joseph Clay £100; George Woodhead £100; James Wheat £100; Arthur Thompson £100;

Joseph Mitchell, £100; Joseph Mitchell (for Thomas Boulsover) £100; John Shore £100; George Townsend £100; Benjn Thompson £200; Kenyon Parker £200; John Winter £100; Vincent Eyre (for the Duchess of Norfolk) £200; and Vincent Eyre (for the Earl of Surrey) an additiona1 £100.

The above original subscription list as will be seen amounts to a total sum of £4,100, or £100 above the sum specified in the foregoing minute. The first meeting of the Subscribers was held on January 13th, 1783, at the "house of Mr. Fox, the Rein Deer Inn," 21 of the 33 subscribers being present, and a Committee was elected to "form a plan and obtain estimates of an Inn and other Buildings to be erected on a certain piece of land lying on the east side of the Bullstake in Sheffield 3976 superficial square yards, and to obtain a lease of this piece of land from the Right Hon. the Earl of Surrey for 99 years at the reserved yearly ground rent of £20 agreeable to his Lordships proposal to the subscribers."

This Committee was constituted as follows: Vincent Eyre, John Parker, both esquires; the Rev. Mr. Wilkinson, Mr. James Wheat, Mr. Joseph Clay, Mr. J. Matthewman, Mr. Benjn Roebuck and Mr. George Greaves, and any five of these formed a quorum to carry on the business of the subscribers. Much business was done at the ensuing meeting of this Committee on January 20, 1783, also held at the Rein Deer Inn, when it was resolved that the whole front of the Castle Folds should be built up by the subscribers to the said Inn taking the whole into the scheme, and erecting a private house at the northern corner. It was also decided that in the centre of the proposed buildings there should be "a gateway arched for horses and carriages, 14 feet wide and that, up one pair of stairs over this gateway there should be a large Dining Room, 58 feet by 20 and 18 feet high, and that on the ground floor besides a Coffee Room of about 28 feet by 21 feet, there should be about 7 or 8 different rooms of entertainment, the largest not to exceed 28 feet by 21 feet, that the ground floor should not exceed 12 foot in height, the Chambers 10 feet 6 in. and the Attics 9 foot." It was also decided that the designs for the buildings of Mrs. Smilter should be "as little interfered with as may be." Again, it was decided that there should be a "market room, suitable rooms for servants and such other proper rooms offices and conveniences as are usual in large inns." The inn was to be provided with stabling for sixty horses; it was decided that the total expenditure should not exceed £3,500, that if a dining room not less than 50 feet by 20 feet could be provided on the ground floor the same would be as useful as that proposed above," and that "the above be given as instructions to the several workmen who have given in plans, and that they be directed to prepare plans agreeable to these resolutions with such alterations as they may think proper."

Subsequently, at a general meeting on March 31st, 1783, at the house of Godfrey Fox, at the sign of the Rein Deer, it was decided to accept the plan produced by Joseph Badger subject to alterations "in such inferior parts as the Committee shall deem moot." Mr. Vincent Eyre was appointed Treasurer, with power to make calls from time to time, and a first call on subscribers was made of £10 per cent., to be paid to the Treasurer's account at Messrs. Shore's bank. It was further resolved that "a lease of the Castle Barn and ground adjacent be taken for ninety nine years in the name of the Rev. Mr. Wilkinson in trust for the subscribers to The Tontine Inn upon the terms proposed by Lord Surrey." In September it was resolved that a proposal made by Mrs. Smilter to accept four hundred pounds as a full recompense for her tenant right and interest in several tenements and ground adjoining to The Tontine Inn should be accepted, and that the Treasurer should pay to her this sum on her executing a deed of assignment in the said lease and on her giving up possession of the said premises for the use of the said undertaking.

Two years elapsed before another meeting was held, or at all events before the proceedings of any other meeting are recorded in the Tontine Inn Book. On September 5th, 1785, a general meeting was held at The Tontine Inn. This was for the special purpose of accepting the nomination of the various subscribers. The nominations were:- The Earl of Surrey's five shares: No. 1, his Lordship's own life; No. 2, Mary, daughter of Mary Irwine, of Kirklinton, in the county of Cumberland, aged 5 years; No. 3, Jane Irwine, a younger daughter of the above; No. 4, Martha Jessett, in the parish of St. Cuthbert, Carlisle, aged10 years; No. 5, William, son of Mary Fawcett, aged about 2 years. On behalf of the representative and executor of the late Duchess of Norfolk, his son Michael Jones, aged 10 years, and for a second share his younger son Edward Jones, aged about 5 years. Henry Howard's two shares: No. 1, his son Henry Thomas Howard; No. 2, his younger son Edward Charles Howard. Vincent Eyre's two shares: No. 1, his son Vincent Henry Eyre, aged 10 years; No. 2, Thomas Joseph Eyre. John Stacye nominated for his share Thomas Athorpe, son of Robert Athorpe Athorpe, of Dinnington, aged about 10 years. Henry Tudor nominated his neice, Augusta Ann Hirst, aged about 13 years. William Brightmore's nominee was his son Edward, aged 4 years. Joseph Matthewman nominated his daughter Dorothea, aged 10 years, and as executor for the late Thomas Gunning nominated Elizabeth Gunning, his daughter, aged 18 years. John Kenyon nominated for his share James, the son of James Wheat, of Norwood Hall, near Sheffield. Benjamin Roebuck nominated Benjamin, son of Francis Trenton, of Sheffield. Joseph Mitchell nominated his son William, aged 9 years, and (on behalf of Thomas Boulsover) nominated the son of Sarah Hutton of Sheffield, aged 11 years. Also (by desire of Anthony Thompson, of Whiteley Wood) he nominated for his one share Benjamin Thompson, his son, aged 5 years. John Read nominated his son Joseph, aged about 4 years. John Winter nominated his nephew, John Roberts, aged 25 years, son of Samuel Roberts, silver plater, of Sheffield. Kenyon Parker made nominations for his two shares in favour of his sons Francis and William. John Curt's nomination was in favour of his daughter Elizabeth, aged 3+ years. Gamaliel Milner nominated his son of the same name, aged about 5+ years. John Morewood's nomination was John, son of Thomas Sanforth, of Newbould, in the parish of Chesterfield. Samuel Broomhead nominated Samuel Broomhead Ward, son of Joseph Ward, of Sheffield, cutler, aged 15 years. Joseph Clay nominated Francis Foxlow, of Staveley, 13 years old. George Townsend nominated Charles Nathaniel Eyre, son of Vincent Eyre, aged 6 years. Benjamin Broomhead nominated his daughter Elizabeth, aged 3 years, and (on behalf of his brother Joseph) nominated his daughter Arabella, aged 10 years. Jonathan Watkinson's nomination went in favour of his daughter Hannah, aged about 10 years. James Wheat nominated his son James, aged 7 years, and (under the authority of John Sparrow, of Wincobank) his grandson, John Sparrow Stovin, aged 13 years.

[in 1785, when he was 82 years of age, Mr Sparrow nominated a grandson, John Sparrow Stovin, child of his younger daughter to the chance of surviving all other entrants to the Tontine Inn lottery. He died in June 1789 and was buried at Ecclesfield His elder daughter and co-heiress, who had married Joseph Roberts, son of the Rev. Benjamin Roberts, formerly of Upper Chapel, was then a widow, and on her father's decease, Wincobank Hall passed, for the third time, as in the cases of her mother and grandmother, on the distaff side. This Roberts family was gradually dispersed, and the Hall was bought by Mr Jonathan Walker, of Ferham, as a residence for his mother and sister. Then in 1816, there came a further change, opening a new chapter in the history of Wincobank. Source: Wincobank Hall by R E Leader. Extracted from the Sheffield Daily Telegraph 12th and 14th March 1921]

George Greaves nominated his son George Bustard Greaves, aged about 25 years. Thomas Rawson nominated the son of Thomas Steade, of Hillsborough, in the parish of Ecclesfield, aged 15 years. Ben Blonk, on behalf of Joseph Ibberson, nominated Henry Bright, aged about 3 or 4 years, second son of Paul Bright, of Hinckersall, yeoman. George Brittain nominated his son Frederick, aged 15 years. On behalf of the Rev. James Wilkinson, Vincent Eyre nominated Barbara Isabella, daughter of the late Ellen Clarke, of Gray's Inn, London, and now called Barbara Isabella Wilkinson, aged about 16 years. Samuel Phipps cast his nomination in favour of his own life. The two shares of Benjamin Blades Thompson found nominees in his second son Henry, aged 8 years, and his third daughter Ann, aged about 6 years. The nomination of Robert Athorpe Athorpe was in favour of his son Henry, aged about 4 years. Nominations for his two shares were given by John Parker in favour of his elder son Hugh, aged 13 years, and his younger son George, aged 11 years. John Froggatt nominated his son Thomas, aged 9 years, and Joseph Hawksley cast his nomination in favour of his son James, aged 17 years. The last entry in connexion with the proceedings in the first part of this book bears date 26th October, 1792, and it was then resolved that the premises should be immediately advertised to let in the General Evening Post, Lloyd's Evening Post, the Manchester, York, Nottingham, Leeds, and both the Sheffield newspapers, and that the committee should have power to let the said house belonging to the proprietors for any term of years at their discretion, not exceeding twenty-one years.

Between the above entry and the succeeding one, dated January 24th, 1838, a period of 46 years elapses, and, as is inevitable, the personnel of the proprietors undergoes great change. The first entry in this second period is dated January 24th, 1838, and is in the form of a requisition signed by "Thomas Pearson, of Sheffield, gentleman, and Thomas Newman Bardwell, of Sheffield, auctioneer," calling for a meeting of the proprietors, at which a committee of management shall be appointed for discussing the amount of rent to be paid by the tenant of the inn, Mr. Bickley, and for appointing a treasurer. The requisition was addressed to Mr. Thomas James Parker. The meeting was held in Mr. Parker's offices on February 5th, 1838, and it is interesting to read the names of the proprietors present, these being Thomas Parker, William John Bagshawe, Gamaliel Milner, Thomas Pearson, Henry Thorpe Skelton, Adamson George Parker, George Rodgers, Jonathan Marshall (on behalf of Misses Ann and Charlotte Thompson), Bernard John Wake (on behalf of Michael and Edward Jones), Thomas Newman Bardwell, and Benjamin Burbeary on behalf of Henry Howard. When the meeting was convened Mr. Parker was asked to intimate to the proprietors that it would be much better if, on receipt of the notice, they would "convey their sentiments on the various points on the agenda rather than that they should remain to be inferred by their silence."

A very important meeting was held at The Tontine Inn on March 1st, 1838, at which considerable business was done. It may be inferred from the wording of the requisition just mentioned that, to some extent, the affairs of The Tontine had been allowed to get out of hand, and at this March meeting it was resolved that the rules and regulations of the institution should "be allowed and amended," and that Hugh Parker, William John Bagshawe, William Parker, and James Wheat be requested to draw up a new code to govern the proprietors in future, and to submit it to a future meeting. It was specially pointed out to the gentlemen mentioned that an original rule having reference to forfeiture of unclaimed dividends required "amendation or amelioration." It was also resolved that a sum of £158 15s. 6d. then in the hands of the executor of the late treasurer, Mr. Thomas J. Parker's father, as being dividends unclaimed by the late Rev. James Wilkinson and his representatives, should be paid to the latter. Mr. Thomas James Parker was also asked to take over the duties of treasurer of the institution. With regard to the rent of the inn, it was resolved that it and the other premises should be offered to Mr. Bickley for a term of ten years at the rent of three hundred and fifty pounds per annum, and that a lease should be granted to him containing several covenants as to duties taken over by the tenant and his landlords.

Difficulties cropped up now and then, and under date 14th March, 1842, a note in copperplate handwriting is to be found reading as follows: "The efforts made to obtain the arrears of rent owing by Mr. Bickley having proved of no avail, I have to request your attendance at a meeting of the trustees at my office on Tuesday, the 22nd instant, at 11 o'clock in the forenoon, to decide on the course under these circumstances to be pursued." That was signed by Thomas James Parker as Treasurer. Grace was given to the tenant at the ensuing meeting, but he failed in his promises, and at a general meeting of the proprietors held on May 28th, 1842, Mr. Bickley attended and declared his total inability to pay the rent reserved by the lease of the Inn to him, and produced to the meeting a statement showing great diminution which had taken place in the business of the Inn, through the fact that the line of the North Midland Railway had been made through Rotherham instead of Sheffield, and through other causes, and that it would he utterly out of his power to continue the business unless his rent should be reduced to £200 per annum from the original figure of £350. The meeting was entirely sympathetic to the tenant, and it was unanimously decided that, without prejudice to the lease, his rent should be reduced to £200, as requested, though only for one year.

That mention of the North Midland Railway was the first time that The Tontine Inn had been brought into touch with the big things outside the cramped town in which it stood, save that, from its institution, it had been the recognized hostel for travellers of all degrees in life, and had been much in use at elections. However, the Inn soon became a storm centre as will be seen from the following requisition dated November 19th, 1845. It was signed by William John Bagshawe, William Parker, T. Pearson and J.N. Bardwell, and asked that a meeting of the proprietors should be called "in consequence of the intended application to Parliament of the Manchester, Sheffield and Midland Junction Railway, which Company contemplates taking a portion of the Sheffield Tontine property and which Company has given an authority to purchase the entire property conditionally upon their Bill obtaining the sanction of the Legislature; and also of another intended application by his Grace the Duke of Norfolk, for the purpose of making additional markets and applying for powers for the compulsory purchase of lands and houses in the Township of Sheffield, and to vary and extinguish all rights and privileges therein which would in any way interfere with the objects of the said Bill which will also affect our said property."

It was shown at a meeting of the Manchester, Sheffield and Midland Junction Railway, it had been resolved that Mr. Overend, Chairman of Committee, be authorized to purchase The Tontine Hotel on behalf of the Company, with the reservation as to the Company's Bill already referred to. The result was a meeting at Mr. Parker's office, on December 18th, 1845, at which it was resolved that Mr. Overend and two gentlemen of the Committee, Mr. Thomas Creswick and Mr. Henry Wilkinson, should enter into an agreement individually and not as agents, for the purchase of the residue on the term of years and interest of the proprietors in The Tontine Inn and premises, conditionally, that the Act for the Manchester, Sheffield and North Midland Junction Railway be obtained within the next ensuing session of Parliament; and further, that the price to be paid for the property should be ten thousand guineas. It was further resolved, that a sum of £500 as deposit should be paid down by the Railway Company as purchasers, which, in the event of the said Act not being obtained in the next session of Parliament, should become the absolute property of The Tontine proprietors.

The matter at issue brought up several meetings, alike of The Tontine proprietors and of the Railway Company, and eventually, Mr. Wilson Overend reported that the Railway Company did not object to the price of ten thousand guineas, but contended that they could not properly accede to the proposal of a deposit of £500 and its forfeiture in the event of the Bill for the Railway not being obtained. Thereupon the proprietors decided to reduce the proposed deposit to half the original amount, with a similar provision as to forfeiture, though this was only carried by a majority of five votes.

On January 9th, 1846, Mr. Overend wrote, stating that the proposition respecting the deposit had been laid before the Company's Solicitor, who strongly objected to the Company involving itself in any act which was not positively legal, and which he said the payment of a deposit subject to forfeiture would not be. Mr. Overend added that the Railway Company remained quite ready to complete the conditional purchase of the property for ten thousand guineas.

All this aroused the greatest interest amongst the proprietors, and a further meeting held on March 6th, 1846, brought together probably the largest attendance, either personal or by proxy, that had been known since the commencement of the century. It was then decided that the proposals of the Railway Company should be accepted without any mention of deposit and forfeiture, and it was further decided--one does not care to think wholly because of the excellent bargain which was being made--that the Chairman, Mr. W.J. Begshawe, should sign on behalf of the proprietors, a petition to Parliament in favour of the Bill for the Manchester, Sheffield and North Midland Junction Railway, Mr. Thomas James Parker alone dissenting.

It was at this meeting that Mr. William Wake, who attended on behalf of Michael and Edward Jones, accepted the suggestion of the Chairman, that he should not be present during the discussion as he was Solicitor for the Bill respecting the Markets, which was being promoted by the Duke of Norfolk. On a previous occasion, on the same matter coming under discussion, Mr. Wake had himself suggested that he should not be present, and on this later occasion he readily agreed with the Chairman's suggestion. In his absence, in addition to the resolution respecting the sale of The Tontine to the Railway Company, a further one was passed relating to the Duke's Markets Bill. This was to the effect that a petition be prepared for presentation to Parliament, unless the promoters of the Bill should agree to abandon so much of it as affected The Tontine and premises.

The text of these resolutions was duly forwarded to Mr. Wake, as representative of Michael and Edward Jones, and in reply, that gentleman wrote at length to Mr. Parker, now referred to as "Clerk to The Tontine," first dealing with the fact that Michael and Edward Jones had been deprived of representation through his (Mr. Wake's) withdrawal at the Chairman's suggestion, then protesting against their being asked to pay any expenses arising out of resolutions passed at the meeting at which they had been unrepresented, further stating that he still adhered to the legal soundness of the vote he gave at a previous meeting in favour of the Railway Company being called upon to pay a deposit, and finally mentioning the fact that the two gentlemen he represented had each signed a consent as proprietors in The Tontine, to the application by the Duke of Norfolk with regard to the Markets Bill. In his reply--and each of these communications was couched in terms of extreme and pleasant courtesy, which was characteristic of the age; Mr. T. J. Parker said he was shortly issuing to the proprietors a copy of the agreement with the Railway Company, asking them to sanction it. That was a variation of the resolution of March 6th, 1846, which instructed Mr. Parker to prepare the agreement and submit the same for settlement to Mr. Bagshawe, Chairman, and afterwards to "be good enough to sign the same for himself and his co-proprietors in The Tontine." Mr. Parker added in this letter to Mr. Wake, that he also proposed to state in his circular letter to the proprietors, that the promoters of the Markets Bill had given out that they meant to give for The Tontine premises not one half of what the Railway Company had offered. On December 7th, 1846, Mr. Parker called a further meeting, and, in the notice convening it, said that the proposed Manchester, Sheffield and Midland Junction Railway had been abandoned by the promoters. Thus the ten thousand guineas appeared to have vanished into thin air! The meeting took place on December 23rd, of the year when it was resolved that a petition against the Sheffield Markets Bill should, at the proper time, be presented to Parliament, and that such petition should contain a prayer to appear by Counsel. This was subsequently modified, it being decided that the Treasurer's Parliamentary Agent should appear in support of the petition, and that the Institution should not go to the expense of Counsel or witnesses. In due course, the Duke of Norfolk's Markets Bill passed through Parliament, and in July, 1848, Mr. T. J. Parker informed the proprietors of receipt of a notice under the new Act, requiring them to state their claims and to treat for sale of their interests. The meeting was held on August 7th, 1848, and the notice above mentioned was fully discussed, and a Case and opinion of Counsel which had been taken, as to his Grace's power to compel the proprietors individually to sell their respective interests, and whether he could, without all the proprietors concurring, break up The Tontine interest of the parties, were read. The Counsel's opinion was, that the Duke could compel sale of the property by the proprietors and call upon the Trustees for a conveyance, but that it was no part of the Sheffield Markets Act to break up the joint or tontine interest of the parties, and that they were entitled to have the balance of it ascertained in the usual way, and the account paid into Court and invested, and the dividends thereof distributed in lieu of the rents, and that no number of the proprietors short of the whole could compel a payment of the capital, but that they might by agreement amongst themselves make a division. It was unanimously decided that the Treasurer should prepare an answer to the Duke's notice, and that Mr. William Flockton of Sheffield, architect, should make a valuation of The Tontine property, to enable the proprietors to state a price in their answer. The valuation was duly obtained, but Mr. Flockton's figures do not appear on the minutes. On September 9th, 1848, after a very full discussion, it was unanimously resolved, that the sum of ten thousand guineas claimed by The Tontine proprietors to be paid by the Duke of Norfolk, for The Tontine Inn and buildings, and compensation for the taking of the same, be referred to arbitration under the Lands Clauses Consolidation Act, 1845, and that Christopher Paver of Peckfield, near Ferrybridge, be appointed the Arbitrator on the part of The Tontine proprietors. All the proprietors or their proxies duly signed the claim, and it was delivered to Messrs. W. & B.Wake, the Duke's solicitors, whilst, with Mr. Paver declining to act, Mr. John Stewart was appointed as Arbitrator. A Committee was also appointed to carry out the wishes of the proprietors, this consisting of William John Bagshawe, H. T. Skelton, Thomas Pearson, Albert Smith and Dr. M. M. de Bartolome, and on August 21st, 1849, these gentlemen issued their report. It stated that the services of Mr. John Stewart of Liverpool, "a gentleman whose skill and ability in such matters it is difficult to overrate," had been secured as Arbitrator, and then the aid of several first rate valuers and architects had been secured as witnesses. Mr. Marcus Smith of Sheffield had been appointed as Arbitrator on behalf of the Duke, and Mr. John Frederick Foster of Manchester, Barrister-at-Law, was appointed to act as Umpire. It turned out that the Arbitrators could not agree, and on the 18th and 19th of May the reference was fully gone into and Mr. Foster published his award on August 9th. Thereby he directed that the sum of £7,720 should be paid by the Duke of Norfolk for purchase of the leasehold interest of the proprietors, and a further sum of £284 12s. 0d. for costs incident to the reference, umpirage and award. This report was signed by each member of the special Committee. Here, of course, was a great disappointment to the proprietors who, at one time, had seemed assured of a sum of ten thousand guineas from the railway company and lost a quarter of that sum through the arbitration. It was decided to call a special meeting to consider whether this sum of £7,720 should continue in the way of a tontine upon the like trusts as those on which The Tontine premises had been held, or whether the same should be divided, and, if so, in what manner amongst the several Tontine proprietors beneficially entitled thereto or interested therein. To his notice convening this meeting Mr. T. J. Parker appended a brief resume of the proceedings, stating the amount to be paid into Court and invested and continued in the way of a tontine in the like manner and on the like trusts as The Tontine premises were held, unless all the proprietors, then only sixteen in number, should agree to a partition of the money amongst them, a majority of the proprietors having already expressed themselves desirous that the latter course should be adopted. This meeting was held on Sept. 6th, 1849, at which the question was very fully discussed; but in consequence of the refusal of Miss Ann Thompson, one of the proprietors, to divide or do away with the tontine, and also of Miss Charlotte Thompson (for the former of whom Mr. W. P. Milner appeared as proxy), and the representative of George Rodgers not being present or represented by proxy, the question of division was at once put an end to, and it was resolved that the Treasurer be authorized to carry out the award of Mr. J. T. Foster. Efforts were made subsequently by Messrs. W. & B. Wake, acting for the Duke of Norfolk, to prevent the capital sum being paid into Court and for it, as an alternative, to be paid to the Trustees, so that the Duke's agents might obtain immediate possession of The Tontine premises. However, though a meeting was called to consider this proposal, nothing was done, and on Jan. 24th, 1850, Messrs. Wake wrote as follows: " Since the last meeting that we attended of The Tontine proprietors two of the present Trustees, Mr. Bagshawe and Mr. Pearson, have apprised us that they shall decline acting as Trustees of the purchase money; and, altogether, so little assistance has been rendered us in our endeavours to keep the money out of Court, a matter in which the proprietors are as much interested, or more interested, than our client, we have come to the determination to pay it in next week. It has become important that possession should be given, and as the proprietors have not faith enough in the Duke of Norfolk and those acting for him to accept the effort made on His Grace's behalf, they will only have themselves to blame if, as we doubt not will be the case, they at a future date regret that the money ever got into Court." Five days later a meeting of the proprietors was held, presided over by Mr. W. J. Bagshawe. A very long discussion ensued, the question finally resolving itself into whether the strictly legal course of paying the purchase money into Court should be pursued, whereby a very serious loss and considerable trouble would inevitably accrue to The Tontine proprietors; or whether the Trustees would take upon themselves the risk, if such it could be called, of receiving the purchase money and investing it so as to make a better rate of interest than could be made by investing it in the Funds, and so avoid the loss and trouble consequent upon the former course.

Mr. Albert Smith argued that the Trustees should act strictly, and inspired one or two of them with a fear of incurring risk if they acted other; but a large majority of the meeting was decidedly averse to the money being paid into Court, and it was suggested that if the existing Trustees had any fears of the consequences there were other proprietors who had no fears on the subject, and who were ready to become Trustees in the room of any who might wish to retire. Mr. Wm. Wake, who again appeared as representing Michael and Edward Jones, said that the Duke must have possession of The Tontine premises and that therefore, unless that was given, he must that night order the money to be paid into Court.

It was eventually decided "That the proprietors now present do not see any objection to Mr. T. J. Parker giving possession of the premises on the Duke of Norfolk's solicitors or agent giving such an undertaking respecting the purchase money and interest as he may consider satisfactory." It was agreed that on the requisite undertaking being forthcoming, possession should be given to the Duke. That meeting was held on January 29th, 1850, and apparently the resolution did not commend itself to the representatives of the Duke, as will be seen from the notice convening a further meeting on June 21st of the same year. This read as follows:--

"The meeting is for consideration of the best course to be pursued with reference to the investment of the purchase money or sum of £7,720 which, having been paid into Court by the Duke of Norfolk, is at present unproductive, and especially a suggestion by Mr. Chapman Barber, the conveyancer, in an opinion recently given by him on the question as to laying out the money in purchase of an annuity for 33 years--the unexpired Leasehold Interest of the proprietors in the Tontine premises- such annuity to be divided, as the rents of The Tontine premises had they not been sold would have been, amongst those proprietors whose respective nominees from time to time shall be surviving until all the nominees but one shall have died, when the proprietor whose nominee shall be last the survivor shall become absolutely entitled to the annuity, as he or she would otherwise have been to The Tontine premises, for the remainder then to come and unexpired of the said term of 33 years." It was unanimously decided that Mr. Parker should ascertain whether Government would, in exchange for the £7,720, grant an immediate annuity to continue for 33 years and, if so, what would be the amount of the annuity, and also that Mr. Parker should ascertain, by taking the opinion of an actuary, how much of the Stock, supposing the money to be then invested in the Funds, would have to be sold out and divided each half year so as to exhaust the capital at the end of 33 years.

Four months later Mr. Parker supplied the information asked for. It was that Government would grant an annuity of £372 9s. 6d., Consols being at 96æ, and he also added the reply of the actuary of the Legal and General Life Assurance Society as follows:-- "The calculation indicated requires to be based on two assumptions, both of which are objectionable. It will be necessary to assume that the price of Three per cent Consols will vary little from the present price during the 33 years, and that in any part of that period the price will not rise so high as to enable the Government to reduce the interest, say, from 31/2% to 21/2%. Assuming the present price of Government £3 per cent Stock to be permanent, the portion of Stock to be sold in each of the 33 years ought to be such that the produce of the sale, added to the year's interest on the residue of the capital, may together make up the sum of £378." At the meeting at which the above was read three methods of employing the sum of £7,720 were discussed, these being (1) by investment in Government Stock and making annual sales of so much of it with the year's interest or dividend on the residue of the capital as will raise the sum of £378, which, in 33 years would exhaust the capital; (2) in the purchase of a Government annuity for 33 years which would produce the same amount, or (3) the placing of the money in the names of the Trustees on mortgage.

The first of these proposals met with little favour, and it was agreed that the opinions of the proprietors should be obtained respecting the other two, and on November 30th, 1850, the following resolution was passed:- That on obtaining the concurrence of Mr. T. J. Eyre (as to which his proxy, Mr. Parker, thought there need be no doubt) and that of the party entitled to the share of the late Miss Thompson, the Treasurer immediately take such steps as he should deem necessary for having the £7,720 invested in a Government annuity payable during the residue of the term of 99 years granted by the lease from the late Earl of Surrey to the late Rev. James Wilkinson of the land on which The Tontine Hotel and premises were built, such annuity to be in the names of the existing "Trustees, viz., Hugh Parker, Wm Jno Bagshawe, Wm Parker, Thomas Pearson, and James Wheat, to be held by them and upon and for the like trusts intents and purposes as The Tontine premises were held by them prior to the purchase of them by the Duke of Norfolk or as near thereto as the change occasioned by their sale to the Duke admitted of." The voting between these two suggestions was as follows:--For the mortgage proposal, Michael Jones and Edward Jones (represented by Mr.Bernard Wake) and Thomas Joseph Eyre (represented by Mr. T. J. Parker). For the Government annuity:--Miss Irwin, Miss Ann Thompson (represented by Mr. W. P. Milner), Wm. Parker, James Wheat, Vincent Henry Eyre, John Sparrow Stovin (represented by Mr. Albert Smith), John Parker, Wm. Jno. Bagshawe, Thomas Pearson, and the representatives of the late George Rodgers. In March it was decided that, in accordance with Mr. Chapman Barber's suggestion, a fresh deed of trust be signed by the proprietors before any application was made to the Court of Chancery for payment of the £7,720 for the purpose of being issued in a Government annuity, and a draft of the proposed new trust deed was read and approved. On the same date Mr. Parker reported the decease of Miss Charlotte Thompson, whose mental infirmity had rendered the payment of the purchase money into Court necessary. On August 19, 1851, new trustees were appointed in the persons of W. Leonard, G. Bagshawe, and Thomas James Parker, to take the place of trustees recently deceased, and in October it was reported that the total number of nominees had been reduced by death to twelve persons.

Fifteen months later an Indenture was signed by the executors of the Wm. John Bagshawe and Henry Edmund Watson, investing the latter with all the rights in the deceased's share as proprietor and which share had acquired by Mr. H. E. Watson at auction. The Indenture recited that since the death of Wm. John Bagshawe, which took place on June 1st, 1851, namely on or about December 3rd, 1851, £7,650, part of the purchase money paid by the Duke of Norfolk, was by the then existing body of proprietors paid into the National Debt office for purchase of an annuity, terminable at the end of 30 years, of the annual value of £376 4s. 0d., expiring on October 10th, 1883. And that when the Share or Life numbered 21 was offered by public auction it was purchased by Henry Edmund Watson for the sum of £200. This appears a rather curious matter, inasmuch as the previous minute shows that there were then only twelve proprietors living, including Mr. Bagshawe, and that the annuity would produce for each a sum of £37 per annum. The Indenture referred to was a transfer from the executors of Mr. Bagshawe to Henry Edmund Watson, his executors and assigns, all their interest whatsoever in the Share or Life No. 21 thus sold by auction. However, on December 20th of the same year we find another Indenture or transfer, this being between William Leonard G. Bagshawe and Henry Edmund Watson, whereby the latter sold and the former bought for the sum of £200 the Share No. 21, so that it once more went into possession of Mr. W. J. Bagshawe's family, and thus it appears that Mr. Watson's purchase was probably intended as in form only and without any intention on his part to hold his purchase.

In the early part of this abstract of the old minute book reference was made to the fact that the first subscription brought in a total of 33 persons, who took amongst them 41 shares of £100 each, those holding more than one share subsequently nominating other persons for the second and third shares. At the very outset of the second period with which the book deals, that is to say, the transactions of the 19th century, we find that at a meeting of proprietors, Jonathan Marshall appeared for the Misses Ann and Charlotte Thompson, presumably daughters of Benjamin Thompson, who when five years old, and on September 5th, 1785, was declared nominee to the share then held by Anthony Thompson of Whiteley Wood. Miss Ann Thompson, one of these sisters, survived as one of the three remaining proprietors when Mr. Parker's final entry took place in 1861, 76 years after the allocation of the shares. Her residence was at Kenilworth, and the others were Francis Westby Bagshawe, of The Oaks, Norton, and Thomas Joseph Eyre, of Pulteney Street, Bath. There is but little information in the book relative to the dates of subscriber's deaths, or the way in which various shares got into different hands, but a memorandum of March 25th, 1844, speaks of an indenture or transfer from the Rt. Hon. Charles John Howard, commonly called Viscount Andover, Henry Howard, and Philip Henry Howard (executors of Henry Howard), whose share No. 4 had as nominee Martha (wife of Richard McNally of Warwick), formerly known as Martha Jessett. This transfer was in favour of T. J. Parker. Then an indenture dated April 2nd, 1845, is referred to between William Smith, Thomas Dunn and J. Towlerton Leather and George Wm. Freeman of the one part, and T. J. Parker of the other. This was respecting a share of which Hugh Parker was nominee.

Mrs. Arabella Pearson, formerly Arabella Broomhead, nominee for share No. 33, died on January 14th, 1853, whilst the probate of the will of Captain Edward Jones was registered on July, 1854, and that of W. L. G. Bagshawe on August 25th of the same year.

On October 27th, 1857, notices of meeting were sent out to eight surviving proprietors, these being F. W. Bagshawe, Robert Sorby Jr. (executor of George Rodgers), John Sparrow Stovin, Thos. Joseph Eyre, Miss Mary Irwin of Shelfanger, Diss, Hugh Parker, J. T. Parker, and Miss Ann Thompson. A year later this list had been reduced by the death of Mr. Stovin, and on April 15th, 1861, word was received of the death of Miss Irwin, leaving only five survivors. A further word respecting Miss Ann Thompson may be added. At several meetings she was represented as proxy by Mr. Jonathan Marshall, by Mr. Wm. Pashley Milner, and then by Mr. Wm. Smith, Junr., whilst on October 2nd, 1858, Mr. T. J. Parker places a memorandum in the book stating that he had received word from Mr. Thomas Thompson, of Welton, nr. Hull, a solicitor, stating that Miss Thompson had become mentally deranged and was subject to religious mania and delusions, which led her to believe that her tontine and copyhold properties were not properly conveyed to her and that it was sinful for her to profess to be the owner of them.

One other note remains, a form of receipt signed by W. P. Milner and dated the 20th day of October, 1871, and acknowledging receipt of a sum £368 7s. 4d. from Mr. Parker, honorary treasurer and sole surviving trustee of the Sheffield Tontine, being the amount payable in respect of the only existing share in the said Tontine, of which the said Ann Thompson was the nominee and proprietor. The deed was an Annuity purchased in December, 1851, terminable in 33 years, so that it appears Miss Ann Thompson and her assigns would benefit from it solely, to the extent of about £360 a year up to the year 1884, or for at least thirteen years.

Really The Tontine had been a very good thing in every way. It had furnished the town with a commodious and up-to-date inn, which became much more than locally celebrated, and it had secured to the shareholders and their nominees handsome returns on their capital. There is no record of dividends being paid during the years 1841 and 1842, and no records whatever of the earlier period between 1782 and 1792, but the property of The Tontine was complete fairly early in that period and must have been paying its way at least. In subsequent years the dividends were very high, as the following record proves:-May, 1839, £9 14s. 10d. per share; October, 1840, £11; October, 1843, £12; November, 1844, £9 15s.; December, 1845, £14; December, 1846, £10 10s.; December, 1847, £10; August, 1848, £9 9s.; September, 1849; £19 14s.; June, 1850, £13; October, 1852, £27 (this being immediately after the purchase of the Government annuity); November, 1853, £16 11s.; May, 1854, £16 12s.; November, 1854, £17 15s. (when there were only ten survivors); June, 1855, £17 14s.; December, 1855, £23; May,1856,£25; October, 1856,£25; Apri1,1857,£25; November, 1857, £25 17s.; June, 1858, £26; November, 1858, £26; May, 1859, £28 17s.; October, 1859, £29 10s. ; April, 1860, £30 12s.; October, 1860, £29 10s.; April, 1861, £34 14s.: and October, 1861,;£36. In estimating the size of such dividends it is worth while remembering that each share meant the expenditure of no more than £100.

The Tontine stood in a gradually increasing swirl of traffic for a considerable time after Mr. T. J. Parker, the honorary treasurer, made his last entry in this very interesting and valuable book.

[source: The Making of Sheffield I865-1914 by J. H. Stainton with pen and ink illustrations by the author. E. Weston & Sons, Change Alley, Sheffield 1924. Chapter 5. The Tontine Inn Book]

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THE TONTINE INN, SHEFFIELD

Going down the Bull Stake, in Sheffield, on the right hand side as far as Dixon Lane were very low ancient houses with most of them having courts in front with steps descending into them from the street. Lower down stood the Castle Laiths. These and the old barns were pulled down and removed to build the "Tontine Inn" some time before it was opened in 1785, the inn having been first proposed in 1782. The wooden Shambles were replaced about the same time.

A Joseph Woodhouse (born about 1775) writing in 1832 (when cholera was raging in Sheffield, see later) faintly remembers old barns being removed to build the Tontine Inn sometime before it was opened in 1785.

Gales & Martin's 1787 Directory of Sheffield lists the coaches to Birmingham, Carlisle, Doncaster, Edinburgh, Hull, Leeds and London. All of these departed from the Angel Inn except the London coach which departed from the Tontine Hotel: The Tontine Coach, every Morning (except Saturday) at seven o' Clock, by way of Rotherham, Worksop, Newark, Grantham, Stamford, &cc. to the Saracen's Head, Snow-hill. Returns every Evening (except Monday) about nine o' Clock.

There was at the Tontine none of the long tenure of occupancy that is a characteristic of some other inns, and none of the mystery that surrounds their career. Landlords came and went in rapid succession. The first Landlord (1785) was James Watson who was succeeded in 1793 by William Carnelley, my 4th great-grandfather.

6 June 1793: Tontine Inn opened by William Carnelley. [source: The Sheffield Local Register]

Tontine Inn and Hotel, William Carnelley. Doncaster and Rotherham coaches daily, at seven in the morning, from the Tontine. [source: The Universal British Directory 1793 -1798]

Robinson's Sheffield Directory of 1797 shows: "William Carnelley, Address: Tontine Inn, 2 Hay Market, Sheffield, Yorkshire". William's neighbour at 1 Hay Market was Francis Beardsall, also my 4th great-grandfather, hotelier, who's son John married William's daughter Elizabeth. John Beardsall and Elizabeth, nee Carnelley, are my great-great-great-grandparents.

Feb 2 1798: The Tontine Inn entered upon by Mr. Ashmore. [source: The Sheffield Local Register]

In I798 Mr. Ashmore followed William as the landlord of the Tontine, but removing in I805 to the "Commercial Inn" (afterwards the "Mail Coach"), Mr. Simpson entered upon the " Tontine"; then, in I809, Mr. Batty; in I820, Mr. John Lambert - who had been a woollen draper in Rotherham, and had married Mr. Batty's daughter; in I832, Mr. William Lyon Bickley, who married another of Mr Batty's daughters. With Mr. Bickley the line ended. He survived his house, and became an iron merchant, living until I866, small, round, and rubicund.

Almost from the opening of the Inn, coaches ran daily to different towns, the fares being 11/- to York, 5/- to Leeds, and 8/- to Birmingham, these being for box seats, with material reduction for other seats. The Post Office was in Norfolk Street, in the shop at the corner of Arundel Street. Mr. Wreaks was Postmaster, and the postal work of the town was carried out by five letter carriers. The coaches went to and fro from the Tontine, King's Head, Angel, Commercial Hotels, whilst the carriers were mostly from stores and warehouses in Arundel Street.

There is no doubt at all that The Tontine had much to do with social amenities in the town of Sheffield; it was there the wealthy townsmen feasted, round about it that much of the early election fighting took place and there that complimentary banquets were held. An example of the latter is "The Celebration of the Glorious Revolution" which took place on the 5th November 1792:

On Monday, the 5th instant, a party of the friends of Liberty, dined at the Tontine Inn, in Sheffield to celebrate the anniversary of the Revolution of 1688. A good dinner was provided, and the afternoon was spent in the most agreeable and rational manner. Several songs well-suited to the occasion were introduced; and the following long list of patriotic sentiments were given:

The Revolution of 1688; and may the fate of dethroned monarchs be a lesson to all oppressors.

All true patriots in every section of the globe: and universal honour to the memory of those by whom the revolution we are celebrating was accomplished.

The Sovereignty of the People.

The King.

The constitution in its original purity; may a speedy and effectual reform in parliament, on a broad and liberal basis once more show it to the world in its true colours.

The Rights of the people: may they from this moment become their first and dearest care, and soon be placed on a secure and permanent foundation. The Societies in Great Britain and Ireland, associated to forward a Parliamentary reform . . .

May England never want patriots to bring to light abuses: nor the people virtue

and resolution to correct them.

The Liberty of the Press.

The patriotic writers and printers, who have virtue enough to withstand the living corruptions of power.

May the people in every country soon become too wise to be imposed upon by those who are vilely paid for the purpose.

The navy and the army: may they never consider themselves in any other light than as armed citizens.

A speedy abolition of slavery.

May wisdom and virtue chase corruption from society.

May the empire of the mind be free.

Equality - not in respect of property, but of rights.

May all the nations of the earth dare to be free.

The Members of the National Convention of France: may they form a constitution and government more pure and perfect, than had hitherto existed.

The armies of France: may their successes against armed despots, continue to surprise the world.

The people of Poland: may they soon enjoy the liberty they have unsuccessfully fought for.

The Swinish Multitude equally capable of wisdom and virtue with their calumniators.

The Hardware Heads of Sheffield: may their heads like their wares, prove the best in the world.

May a national stain be fixed on all apostates from the cause of liberty, and their country.

Universal Liberty, peace and philanthropy to all mankind; and may despots and despotism be speedily hunted from the face of the earth.

[source: Manchester Herald, 17 November 1792. From J. Stevenson, Artisans and Democrats: Sheffield and the French Revolution, 1787-97 (1989), pp. 57-8]

The Iris newspaper gives us a very graphic account of a storm which struck Sheffield in January, 1802, when "scarce a house in the town escaped dilapidation. The slates were torn from the roofs and scattered dreadfully through the streets, making it perilous to pass through them. A sheet of lead, 2,000 lbs. in weight, was precipitated from the roof of The Tontine into the yard, falling on the very spot whence five minutes before the mail coach for Doncaster had started out."

Local newspapers contain accounts of a number of events which were celebrated in Sheffield in the early 19th century; pageants, processions and dinners in which the Tontine Inn played a prominent part. Spectacular celebrations accompanied the opening of the Canal on the 22nd February 1919, for example. On an unusually fine day ten barges, decorated with flags and led by the 'Industry', sailed from Tinsley to the Canal Basin, a route which was lined with thousands of spectators. The press of the crowd was so great that the basin was cordoned off with rope and chains and officers armed with staves had been appointed to clear the way. The first barge reached the basin at 2 o'clock amidst the firing of cannon, and members of the Canal Company, their supporters and friends disembarked and formed a procession which was joined by workmen and engineers, the clergy, nobility and magistrates of the county, the Master Cutler and Church Burgesses, and members of the numerous sick clubs and friendly societies, all carrying their flags and banners and accompanied by a band of musicians. They marched up Castle Street and Angel Street into High Street, from whence they continued to Fargate, Carver Street, Norfolk Street and Market Street to the Tontine Inn, cheered all along the way by thousands of townsmen and women. All the principal inns provided dinners, and toasts were drunk to the King, the Prince Regent, the Sheffield Canal Company and to 'the Duke of Wellington and his brave companions in arms'.

1832 was a momentous year for Sheffield. On the 8th July the Board of Health announced that cholera had appeared in the town. By the 22nd August 207 people had died of the disease, and a day of public prayer was held as panic mounted. In all, over 400 people lost their lives, the survivors being so relieved when the crisis was over that on the 22nd November a day of public Thanksgiving was observed, all shops and businesses being closed and the general public attending churches throughout Sheffield.

Earlier in 1832 there had been celebrations following the passing of the Reform Bill which gave Sheffield the right to elect teo M.P.s, although eligibilty to vote was highly restricted. The 18th July was set aside as a day of celebrations and the procession which moved along all the principal streets was the most impressive ever to be seen in the town up until thst time. Nearly 30,000 people assembled on the Wicker and on land adjacent to the new cattle market nearby. There was music and flags, and all the most important bodies of the town were represented, including 5,000 members of the Political Union, each bearing medals struck especially for the occasion. The decorative carriages of the Printers Union, in which two printing presses were at work, were led by Mr. F. Gorden, the oldest printer in Sheffield, dressed as William Caxton on horseback. Following him came all the different classes of workmen carrying specimens of their manufactures. After parading through the main streets of the town, the procession, which was nearly two miles long, returned to the new cattle market where a hymn composed by Ebenezer Elliot was sung by the multitude. The crowd then dispersed, either to the many inns and hotels which were putting on special dinners for the occasion, or to a public dinner at the Hyde Park cricket ground. Unfortunately the joyful sentiment turned sour not long afterwards when an unpopular candidate was returned in the first election. In the riot which ensued on the 14th December 1832 six people were shot dead by troops called out to quell the unrest. Most of the disturbances took place around the Haymarket and the Tontine Inn, where windows were smashed, but as panicking crowds dispersed through the neighbouring streets no doubt many shopkeepers held their breath and hoped that the morning would find their premises intact.

In May 1839 a Chartist meeting in Sheffield attracted a crowd of 20,000 but with the Commons' rejection of a National Petition containing 1,250,000 signatures, strikes and insurrection were being considered by the movements leaders. Fearing civil disorder, the one day strike held in Sheffield on the 12th August 1839 resulted in a strong police and military presence. Samuel Holberry (1814 - 1842, Chartist Martyr) helped to organise public protest meetings in order to establish the right for people to meet openly and discuss political issues. Some were held in churches and churchyards and there was a large assembly of people in Paradise Square, Sheffield. In September 1839 the authorities reacted by banning any further meetings in the Square but the Chartists continued to organise public gatherings in out-of-town locations. Nevertheless, an illegal public meeting was held in Paradise Square on the 11th November 1839, as part of what appears to have been towards a planned attempt at a national uprising. On the 12th January 1840, five hundred Chartists were recruited with object of taking over the Town Hall and the Tontine Coaching Inn, to be used strategically as 'forts' in the city. The authorities were tipped off by a Rotherham publican the night before the insurrection. Holberry was arrested and sentenced to four years' imprisonment in York Castle prison, but following some weeks on the treadmill and months of solitary confinement he was moved to the hospital wing where he died of TB on the 21st June 1842 having served only two years and three months of his sentence.

The Tontine's prosperity was largely dependent on the coaching trade and in 1838 coaches were still leaving, daily, to York, Leeds and Birmingham, but its day really ended with the coming of the railways and, in particular, the formation of the North Midland Railway Company's main line east of the town. This isolation of the town, side by side with admirable railway facilities at Masborough, very largely reduced the outside patronage which had made the Tontine so profitable a house. It was not unnatural that Masborough should be regarded as more convenient so soon as the North Midland was made, with an intervening space of a year between that event, the construction and opening of the Sheffield to Rotherham railway line and the line from Masbrough to London (1839). Masbrough is within a mile of Rotherham's centre.

Before the Masbrough station had opened in 1840, the only way to London was by coach. Journey time from the Tontine Inn was little short of twenty-six hours. The Tontine Inn was about a mile north of the present site of Sheffield Railway Station. It was built roughly where Exchange Street is now. Thirteen coaches a day left the Inn. It had the hectic scene of bustle of any transport terminus. With Sheffield's growing links with the outside world of commerce, came an increase in traffic. The inn's courtyard rang to the clip of hooves, the rattle of wheels on the cobbles and the commands of the ostlers. Then one day in May 1840 all fell quiet. From that day the North Midland Railway pulled into Wicker station Sheffield and made the journey to London possible in about nine and a half hours which led to the eventual decline in coach services and reduction in profits.

In July 1848 the Duke of Norfolk's Markets Bill passed through Parliament and part of the site chosen for the new market hall was that occupied by the Tontine Inn, which was purchased by his Grace. The inn closed as a licensed house in 1849 and was demolished in 1850. The Norfolk Market Hall opened on Christmas Eve 1851. It was built at a cost of £38,000. The Haymarket end was remodelled in 1904. Until 1899 the Duke of Norfolk had the rights to all the markets in Sheffield. These rights were purchased by the Corporation for the sum of £526,000.

[sources: "Reminiscences of Sheffield in the Eighteenth Century" by R.E.Leader; A Directory of Sheffield including ... adjacent villages, 1797, Robinson, John, Sheffield. Printed by J. Montgomery, in the Hartshead, for John Robinson, Spring Street; "A Description of the Town of Sheffield in my remembrance wrote in the year 1832 at the time the Cholera was raging in Sheffield" by Joseph Woolhouse; "The Making of Sheffield I865-1914" by J. H. Stainton with pen and ink illustrations by the author. E. Weston & Sons, Change Alley, Sheffield 1924. Chapter 5. The Tontine Inn Book; "Grave Tales from South Yorkshire" by Giles Brearley]

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TONTINE INN, SHEFFIELD.

W. CARNELLEY,

(From the Rein Deer Inn, Doncaster,)

RESPECTFULLY informs the Nobility, Gentry, Travellers, and the Public at large, that he has taken the above Inn (lately occupied by Mr. Watson, and that he is now fitting it up in a complete Manner, and intends to open it on or before the 16th Instant ; when he shall esteem himself honoured by a Continuance of the Countenance of such of the Nobility, Gentry, Travellers, &c. as have heretofore made use of the said Inn, and of the Public at large ; and if superior Accommodations, Assiduity and Attention to the Business of his House, be calculated to insure public Patronage & Support, he hopes he shall liberally experience it.

[Derby Mercury - Thursdays 13, 20 & 27 June 1793]

MATLOCK BATH

MR. MASON, of the Old Bath, Matlock, having declined business, Mr. CARNELLEY, from the Tontine Inn, Sheffield, most respectfully informs the Nobility, Gentry, Tradesmen, Travellers, and the Public at large, that he intends to enter upon the above premises about the 2d of February next, 1798, and therefore solicits the Patronage of the Public, who may rely on his utmost exertions to provide for his Friends the best and most liberal accommodations.

The Proprietors having determined to expend from ONE to TWO THOUSAND POUNDS, on the improvement and embellishment of the premises, Mr. Carnelley may confidently hope that those who arc pleased to honour him with their company will receive entire satisfaction.

[Derby Mercury - Thursday 14 December 1797]

TONTINE INN, SHEFFIELD, YORKSHIRE.

TO BE LET, (on lease,)

And entered to immediately,

ALL the said Large. Commodious, and Well accustomed INN, with Stabling for about ninety Horses, now in the occupation of Mr. Carnelley.

N.B. The furniture (which is in good condition) together with the stock of liquor, chaises, coaches, horses, &c. will be sold on reasonable terms.

There is a good Kitchen Garden, which with TWO CAPITAL FARMS, within a mile of Sheffield, now in the occupation of Mr. Carnelley, will be let to the Tenant, who may be accommodated with Two Thousand Pounds of the purchase money, on giving proper security.

Further particulars may be had of Mr. Carnelley, on the premises.

[Derby Mercury - Thursday 18 January 1798 & Thursday 25 January 1798]

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TONTINE INN, SHEFFIELD.

J. WATSON,

IMPRESSED by the Favours he is every Day so liberally receiving from the Nobility, Gentry, Travellers, and the Public in general, returns his grateful Acknowledgments; and at the same time that he expresses his sincere Thanks for the singular Support he has met with since his Entrance upon the above Inn (which is allowed to be one of the largest in the Kingdom) he pledges himself that his utmost Power shall ever be exerted to render the Tontine that comfortable and accommodating Inn which shall be most likely to insure a Continuance of past Favours.

With Regard to the late malicious Reports which have been so industriously circulated in every Part of the Country — and among others that J. Watson HAD GIVEN UP THE TONTINE — he begs Leave to assure his Friends that the whole are gross Falsehoods; and flatters himself that a discerning Public have already discovered from whom such Reports originated, and the true Motives for propagating them.

[Derby Mercury - Thursdays 25 June& 2 July 1789]

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TONTINE SHEFFIELD STAGECOACH

On Friday se'nnight the Tontine Sheffield stagecoach was overturned a little on this side Bridge-Casterton, near Stamford, owing, as we are told, to the temerity of a woman who rode on the box with the coachman.

The pole of the coach we understand was broke, and the horses somewhat unruly ; which caused the woman to ****** the reins out of the driver's hands, and by that means it was overset. There were eight or nine passengers, one of them a woman near her time of lying-in, who escaped without much hurt; two of the outside passengers had their arms broken, and several others were terribly bruised.

A lady, an inside passenger, had two of her fingers torn of ; and the coachman was very much hurt.

[Leeds Intelligencer - Tuesday 21 June 1785]

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CHEAP TRAVELLING.

Star-and-Garter Inn, Call- Lane, Leeds.

A NEW LIGHT COACH, named the Eclipse, sets out from the above INN, every Afternoon at Two o' Clock, (Sundays excepted) stops at the White-Hart Inn, Wakefield, and the George Inn, Barnsley, to the Tontine Inn, Sheffield, where it will arrive about Eight o' Clock in the Evening, and proceeds from thence at Three o' Clock the next Morning, through Chesterfield, Derby, Burton, and Litchfield, to the Hotel and Castle Inns, (alternately) at Birmingham, where It arrives about Four o' clock in the Afternoon, being in Time for the London, Bristol, Bath, and Oxford Coaches, which set out every Morning and Evening.

The Public are requested to take Notice,

That Places are reserved at Birmingham for this Connection (and no other out of Yorkshire) to the undermentioned Places, and by the following Stages :- London Post Coach every Evening at Seven o' clock, (in Sixteen hours) Bristol and Bath Mail Coaches every Evening, and Post Coach every Morning , Oxford Post Coaches every Morning and Evening , Shrewsbury Post-Coach every Morning ; Worcester Post-Coach every Morning, except Sunday ; and to Holy-Head every Tuesday,, Thursday and Saturday Mornings, being an expeditious and fast Conveyance to the West of England.

N. B. There is a Coach sets out from Derby every Day, after the Arrival of this Coach, to Nottingham, at the Low Fare of TWO SHILLINGS each Inside Passenger.

Fare from Leeds to Sheffield, - 0l. 5s.

Sheffield to Birmingham, 0l. 8s.

Birminghim to London, 1l. 8s.

Sheffield, by Way Of Derby

to Nottingham, - - 0l. 10s.

Performed by Strickland, Watson, and Co.

The Proprietors will not be accountable for any Parcel, Box, or Truss, above the Value of five Pounds, unless entered as such, and paid for accordingly.

[Leeds Intelligencer – Tuesdays 1, 15 and 29 December 1789]

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The ROYAL MAIL COACH,

By Government Authority,

Removed from the Angel to the Tontine Inn,

SHEFFIELD

SETS out from J. WATSON’s, the said Inn, every Morning at Four o'clock, and arrives at the Bull-and-Mouth Inn, London, every Morning at Seven o'Clock.

Inside Passengers 2l. 2s. - Outside 1l. 1s.

A LIGHT COACH to DONCASTER sets out from the Tontine Inn, at Six o'clock every Morning ; where it meets the London, Hull, York, and all the Northern Coaches ; so that by it Passengers and Parcels are forwarded to London, and all Places in the South - to Edinburgh, and all Parts of the North. Returns every Evening at Seven o' Clock.

A neat MOURNING COACH and HEARSE, are kept at the said Inn.

[Leeds Intelligencer - Tuesday 28 October 1788]

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Gross falsehoods ? What's all that about then ?

Sorry, I don't know. I can only assume it refers to rumours put out by his competitors that he had gone out of business.

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Great work, Thank you.

CHEAP TRAVELLING.

Star-and-Garter Inn, Call- Lane, Leeds.

A NEW LIGHT COACH, named the Eclipse, sets out from the above INN, every Afternoon at Two o' Clock, (Sundays excepted) stops at the White-Hart Inn, Wakefield, and the George Inn, Barnsley, to the Tontine Inn, Sheffield, where it will arrive about Eight o' Clock in the Evening, and proceeds from thence at Three o' Clock the next Morning, through Chesterfield, Derby, Burton, and Litchfield, to the Hotel and Castle Inns, (alternately) at Birmingham, where It arrives about Four o' clock in the Afternoon, being in Time for the London, Bristol, Bath, and Oxford Coaches, which set out every Morning and Evening.

The Public are requested to take Notice,

That Places are reserved at Birmingham for this Connection (and no other out of Yorkshire) to the undermentioned Places, and by the following Stages :- London Post Coach every Evening at Seven o' clock, (in Sixteen hours) Bristol and Bath Mail Coaches every Evening, and Post Coach every Morning , Oxford Post Coaches every Morning and Evening , Shrewsbury Post-Coach every Morning ; Worcester Post-Coach every Morning, except Sunday ; and to Holy-Head every Tuesday,, Thursday and Saturday Mornings, being an expeditious and fast Conveyance to the West of England.

N. B. There is a Coach sets out from Derby every Day, after the Arrival of this Coach, to Nottingham, at the Low Fare of TWO SHILLINGS each Inside Passenger.

Fare from Leeds to Sheffield, - 0l. 5s.

Sheffield to Birmingham, 0l. 8s.

Birminghim to London, 1l. 8s.

Sheffield, by Way Of Derby

to Nottingham, - - 0l. 10s.

Performed by Strickland, Watson, and Co.

The Proprietors will not be accountable for any Parcel, Box, or Truss, above the Value of five Pounds, unless entered as such, and paid for accordingly.

[Leeds Intelligencer – Tuesdays 1, 15 and 29 December 1789]

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Whilst trawling through back copies of the local, middle 19th century newspapers, looking for coroners' inquest reports, obituaries, etc, which incidentally, I found, I also came across an article in the Sheffield Independant for 1849, concerning the Tontine Inn.

Although I originally transcribed the article for my own benefit, I have since thought that it may be of interest to a wider audience and so, I attach the same herewith.

There is little extra information in it that has not already been detailed in some of the excellent work recorded above, but it is a nice, condensed summary.

I hope that you find it interesting.

I have tried to retain the original spellings where ever possible, although I am sure that the auto-corrector has done some, whilst my attention was elsewhere.

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Thanks UR I found that interesting, don't hesitate in posting more of this

sort of thing if you find any on the old City centre pubs.

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I've been searching on The Star site for Wednesdays article on the Tontine.

I bought the Star with a full page article on the Tontine but trying to find it on their site seems hopeless.

I wanted to link it on here for Richard to see , did anyone else see it?

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I've been searching on The Star site for Wednesdays article on the Tontine.

I bought the Star with a full page article on the Tontine but trying to find it on their site seems hopeless.

I wanted to link it on here for Richard to see , did anyone else see it?

Is this it.

http://www.thestar.co.uk/community/the-diary/take-two-with-colin-drury-1-5347081

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