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Bailey's Northern directory, or, merchant's and tradesman's useful companion, for the year 1781

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Alsop Henry spring knife cutler Coalpit lane

Allen Thomas snuffer maker Baily street

Antt Joseph and son merchants Lambert street

Ashforth Ellis, and Co. platers

Bates Thomas, Samuel, and George filesmiths

Bailey Joseph scissar maker West Bar

Barber Frances fendersmith Spring street

Barns Isaac penknife cutler Campo lane

Barns Thomas penknife cutler Smithfield

Bateman George spring knife cutler Smithfield

Beely Thomas spring knife cutler Pond lane

Beat John table knife cutler Norfolk street

Betts Silvanus filesmith Lambert street

Bishop George wood shife and edge tool maker

Birks William and Son silver handle knife and fork, razor, and penknife manufacturers

Billam John table knife cutler Church lane

Binney Joseph penknife cutler Campo lane

Bland Thomas merchant, edge tool, hammer, and spade maker Paradise square

Blonk Benjamin and Co fine scissar makers and factors Surry street

Bower Joseph cutler Hollis’s croft

Broomhead and Ward table knife cutlers Pond lane

Broomhead Hannah cutler Lambert’s croft

Bramall George scissar maker Pinston’s croft lane

Bramall James table knife cutler Porto Bello

Broomhead Joseph and Benjamin manufacturers Far gate

Bright Joseph snuff box maker, and case knife cutler Hollis croft

Briddock George, and Outrim penknife cutlers Lambert street

Broomhead, Wilkinson, and Brittain merchants and manufacturers Arundel street

Brownell John ironmonger West bar green

Brown George penknife cutler Coal pit lane

Burdett John brass dog collar, silver sleeve button, silver, plated, and mettal seal maker Peacroft

Burch George pocket and penknife cutler Spring street

Cam James file-smith Spring street

Cadman David razor-smith and cutler Backfield

Cawton Joshua and son spring and table-knife makers Snighill

Clarke Thomas Newbould table and pen knife cutler

Clough and Taylor merchants High street

Colley Thomas table-knife cutler Back lane

Cowin John button maker Lambert croft

Cooper Edward button maker Fargate

Coe Joseph cutler Fargate

Crooke James file maker Church lane

Crestwick Joseph cutler and fleam maker Fargate

Dakin George fine scissar maker Lambert croft

Dawson Samuel attorney Paradise row

Darlin George table-knife cutler Holli’s croft

Dennyworth Jonathan cutler Smithfield

Dickinson and Baker tobacconists Fargate

Dixen Gilbert attorney Sycamore street

Didsbury Thomas mercer Market place

Dixon James spring-knife cutler Holli’s croft

Duckenfield Francis merchant and factor Campo lane

Ellis Jonathan attorney Church yard

Elliot Charles grocer High street

Fenton and Henfrey japanners and painters in general Arundell street

Firth Joseph grocer and tea dealer Snig hill

Fowler Samuel scissar maker White croft

Fox William pocket, pen knife and razor maker West bar

Fowler Josiah cutler Coal pit lane

Fox and Norris razor and pen knife makers West bar

Furness James grocer Market place

Foster Richard button maker and cutler Sonds

Garlick Mary and son cutlers Norfolk street

Genn John file smith Spring street

Gillat Henry spring knife cutler Keely

Goddard Thomas pen knife cutler Lambert croft

Green Hannah and son edge tool makers Burgess street

Green James pen knife cutler Bayley street

Greaves and Woodhead merchants Norfolk street

Greaves Samuel grocer Fargate

Hancock Joseph cutler Norfolk street

Hawkesly Joshua filesmith West bar Green

Hall George spotted horn knife cutler Union street

Hall James perfumer Fargate

Harrison John cutler and saw maker Holli’s croft

Hancock Charles spring knife cutler Scotland

Hawksworth Joseph manufacturer, of table knives and forks Lambert croft

Hawke Francis file-smith Smithfield

Haglehurst Hannah and son merchants Market place

Henfrey John fine scissar and snuffer maker Norfolk street

Henfrey Benjamin fine scissar manufactury Arundell street

Henfrey Samuel steel spring snuffer, scissar and steel cat maker Spring street

Hepstentall and Kay file smiths Pea croft

Henson Joseph inn keeper, Horse and Cat High street

Hippenstall John linen and woollen draper Irish cross

Holy Daniel, and Co. platers Norfolk street

Holy and Newbould button manufacturers Sheffield Moor

Hoole Benjamin fine scissar maker Spring street

Hoole John button maker Coal pit lane

Hutton Henry pocket and penknife cutler Coal pit lane

Jacobs Richard engraver Burgess street

Jackson Nicholas file maker Wicker

Jessop John file maker Holli’s croft

Jessop Richard cutler and brass ink pot maker Coal pit lane

Ibberson John penknife cutler Gibralter

Ibberson Joseph merchant and manufacturer Norfolk street

Jebson Matthew table knife cutler Broad lane

Jervis John cutler Pea croft

Justice Paris cutler, razor smith and mark maker West bar

Kent Richard and Son penknife cutlers Holli’s croft

Kemp Newton cutler Norfolk street

Kelk Charles spring knife cutler Westbar Green

Kenyon John Frith Woolhouse and Bamford ironmongers Pond’s Forge and Slitting Mill

Kenyon John filesmith, slit iron, bolted iron, hoop and steel Hollis Street

Kippax and Knowel Wholesale cutlers and silversmiths

Kitchen John cheesefactor and corndealer Snig Hill

Kirkby Samuel razor maker Copper street

Knowles Francis penknife cutlers White croft

Law Thomas, and Co. platers and silver cutlers Norfolk street

Leadbater John razor maker Copper street

Law Joseph Filesmith Gibraltar

Law Philip edge tool maker Coalpit lane

Lambert Robert grocer and tea dealer Market place

Leathley Benjamin cutler and ivory cutter Holli croft

Lindley William and Son cutler Pondwell hill

Littlewood John manufacturer of silver handled table knives and forks West bar green

Linley William razor maker, and cast-steel and frizing knife maker Spring street

Loftus and Brightman manufacturers Church lane

Ludlam Elizabeth cutler Burgess street

Madin and Trickett cutlers and platers Farfield

Mappin Jonathan plater and cup-maker Fargate

Manguall and Faulkner Merchants Norfolk street

Martin Charles springknife cutler Pond lane

Marriott Thomas razor maker Cropper street

Marsden William Fellmonger Tower street

Midgeley Thomas table-knife cutler Bridgehouses

Matthews John penknife cutler West bar green

Matthews Samuel tableknife cutler Lambert croft

Newsom Kemp Isiah penknife cutler Norfolk street

Newton Francis grocer Bull stake

Newbould Samuel sheersmith Coalpit lane

Nowell Joseph cutler Copper street

Norcross William fine scissars maker Lambert street

Oates Christopher table knife cutler White croft

Oates John spring knife cutler Little Sheffield

Osborne George spring knife cutler Little-Sheffield

Owen Robert pocket and table knife cutler West bar green

Parker Thomas and Ebenezer cutlers and factors Holy croft

Parker Ehhu table knife cutler and factor Pea croft

Parker Kenyon attorney Bull stake

Parkin Thomas cutler Scotland

Parkins Joseph and sons razor makers Campo lane

Patten Hannah cutler silver street

Patten George pen knife and pocketknife cutler Coalpit lane

Pearson and Ashmore Metal button makers Coalpit lane

Pearson Jarvis scissar maker Paver street

Pearson William druggist High street

Penlington Samuel Cheesefactor King street

Peach Samuel inn-keeper, Angel market place, Birmingham and London Coaches every day, and Post-chaises

Proctors and Beilby Opticians Milk street

Pryor Thomas fine scissars, and surgeon’s instrument maker Gibraltar

Rayner Turner and son merchants York street

Revill Charles filesmith Hill

Revill George and sons razor and jack penknife maker New street

Riding James and sons cutlers Copper street

Roebuck Benjamin and son merchants Church lane

Rodgers Josiah and Maurice penknife and razor makers Hollis croft

Rose William penknife cutler Coal pit lane

Roberts Jacob and Samuel cutlers Union street

Roberts, Eyre and Co. silversmiths and platers Union street

Rowbotham John silversmith and cutler Norfolk street

Rowbotham John grocer Sims croft

Rutherford William case maker China square

Salt John silversmith and cutler Norfolk street

Sauer, Eyre and Co. merchants Union street

Shaw Jonathan malster Shire bridge

Shepard John razor maker Hollis croft

Shemel, Parkin, Hague, and Staniforth merchants and manufacturers of cutlery Arundell street

Shipley John currier King street

Shaw Thomas clasp maker Fig street

Simmons Samuel stationer Market place

Smith William scissar smith Hollis croft

Smith Sarah and son filesmiths Back lane

Smith Samuel tableknife cutler Scotland

Smith George razor and penknife cutler Smithfield

Smith John spring knife cutler Grindle gate

Smith George filesmith Church lane

Smith Samuel filesmith Heely

Smith John grocer and tea dealer Snig hill

Smith Thomas ironmonger High street

Smith and Vavasour working jewellers & toymen Market place

Smelter George and Philip raff merchants Castle fold

Spencer Matthias and sons filesmith Pea croft

Staniland Richard razor maker Burgess street

Staniforth Samuel woollen draper and merchants Market place

Stansfield John apothecary and man-midwife High street

Stanley Samuel table knife cutler Scotland

Saniland John table knife cutler Pond lane

Stead Richard and son cutlers Holles croft

Sykes John and Dennis manufacturers of wood, ivory, silver and plated table knives and forks

Sutton William razor maker Ponds market

Swift John cutler and scissar maker China square

Swallow Joseph spotted penknife cutler Smithfield

Tillotson Thomas tableknife cutler Coal pit lane

Townshend James pocket knife cutler Smithfield

Trickitt William cutler Arundel street

Trickitt Enoch and James filesmiths Coal pit lane

Travis Nathaniel penknife cutler White cross

Turner Samuel mercer Market place

Turner Nicholas filesmith Lambert croft

Tudor and Leader silversmiths and platers Sycamore hill

Twigg Jonathan penknife cutler Broad lane end

Warburton Samuel tableknife cutler

Wainwright and Staniland tableknife cutlers Hollis croft

Waterhouse John horn button maker Newfield green

Waterhouse Jeremiah cuttoe and knife

Ward James pocket and penknife cutler Spring street

Ward Jeremiah cutler Castle green

Ward William bookseller and printer Market street

Warburton Samuel penknife and razor maker

Westbrook Joseph scissar maker Westbrook green

Watson Thomas innkeeper, George

White Samuel filesmith Bayly fields

Winter, Parsons and Hall platers Market place

Withers Benjamin and Co manufacturers of silver, ivory, plated and wood handle, tableknives and forks, razors, penknives and stamp’d penknives Pinston cross lane

Wilde William file maker Church lane

Windle Edmund tableknife cutler Lambert street

Wilde Margaret filesmith Hollis croft

Wilde Hannah and son filesmith Hollis croft

Wild Jonathan and son penknife cutlers Kims court

Wilson Elizabeth penknife cutler Church street

Wood George scissar maker Pea croft

Wood Benjamin and son mettle and horn button makers Lambert street

Wortley John fine scissar maker Copper street

Wright William razor maker Gibralter

Young, Greaves and Hoyland silversmiths and manufacturers of plated wares and buttons Union street

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Excellent stuff, I've never heard of it - well found.

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Bishop George wood shife and edge tool maker

Shife ? I do hope this is meant to be knife ...

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Crestwick Joseph cutler and steam maker Fargate

Steam maker ?

Constructive critisim, I do know what a steam maker did.

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Henfrey Samuel steel spring snuffer, scissar and steel cat maker Spring street

What did this man actually do, non comprende ...

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Linley William razor maker, and cast-steel and frizing knife maker Spring street

A what knife maker ?

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Shife ? I do hope this is meant to be knife ...

Not knife. Shife was the best I could come up with. OED has it as an alternate spelling of sheave:

1. = SHIVE n.1, slice of bread.

2. a. A wheel having a groove in the circumference to receive a cord passing over it, a pulley; esp. one of the pulleys connected in a block; U.S. also, ‘the pulley of a window or door-hanger’ (Funk's Stand. Dict.). Also, a wheel having a groove in the circumference to enable it to run on a rail or bar.

b. An eccentric or its disk.

c. attrib., as sheave-block, -hole, etc.

3. A layer of a coiled rope.

4. ‘A sliding scutcheon for covering a keyhole’ (Knight Dict. Mech. 1875).

I thought that sense 2a was possible.

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What did this man actually do, non comprende ...

Wish I knew. A snuffer is a device for putting out candles--go into just about any church to see one in use. Not sure why one would need a steel spring--I'm guessing that it folded or extended in some way. Scissar is the spelling used for scissor throughout the directory. Your guess is as good as mine for a steel cat, but that's what it says so that's what I wrote:

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Steam maker ?

Constructive critisim, I do know what a steam maker did.

You're right, this should be fleam (a case of reverse long s syndrome):

fleam, n -- A surgical instrument for letting blood or for lancing the gums; a lancet

(this is the same as phleme, seen in the 1797 directory.)

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A what knife maker ?

Beats me:

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Beats me:

Results of a couple quick "Bing" searches

extract from http://www.schoolshistory.org.uk/publichea...inery_leeds.htm

"This is not all; the injury to the Cloth is great, in so much that in Frizing, instead of leaving a nap upon the cloth, the wool is drawn out and the Cloth is left thread-bare."

From Wiki

"The British Standard BS 6715: 1991[1] is widely considered to offer the correct definition of chamois leather. This defines chamois leather as:

Leather made from the skin of the mountain antelope or Chamois

Leather made from the flesh split of sheepskin or lambskin, or from sheepskin or lambskin from which the grain (the top split) has been removed by frizing, and tanned by processes involving oxidation of marine oils in the skin, using either solely such oils (full oil chamois) or first an aldehyde and then such oils (combination chamois)"

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Wish I knew. A snuffer is a device for putting out candles--go into just about any church to see one in use. Not sure why one would need a steel spring--I'm guessing that it folded or extended in some way.

OK Jeremy, I'm away for a week, not sure whether I will have internet access or not (cottage in the middle of nowhere) so here's your homework for while I'm away.

Find out what a snuffer is at this period of time, what shape it was. The answer will probably tell you why a steel-spring was required.

As a start point a snuffer (at the time we are discussing) was not a bowl-shaped-fella on the end of a stick - that was called an "extinguisher" or "doubter".

Extra marks for pictures, descriptions, why they went out of use (to be replaced by the doubter which went on to "steal" the name) and the remarkable thing you could do with a snuffer ...

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From A heritage of light, by Loris Shano Russell, Janet Holmes:

The tallow candle with its wick of twisted cotton required constant attention. Incomplete combustion of the wick left carbon remnants called snuff which cut down the amount of light, and fell onto the edge of the candle to cause guttering. Without the frequent use of the instrument called a snuffer, there was a rapid decline in illumination and a wasteful consumption of the candle. The snuffer, therefore, was a important household necessity in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.

A typical snuffer looks a little like a pair of scissors, but one of the blades bears a kind of box or pan, and the other a little door, as it were, for the box. When the wick was trimmed with the scissor blades, the burned portion was pushed into the box without falling onto the candle. The blade that carried the box was usually longer and pointed, and could be used to lift a fallen wick to permit trimming.

For some reason the expression "to snuff a candle" has come to mean to extinguish it. This, of course, is quite wrong. The snuffer was used to remove unburned wick or "snuff," and so actually increased the brilliance of the flame.

The discovery of colza oil and rape seed oil in the early 19th century presumably put an end to tallow candles and therefore the snuffer too.

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