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History dude

Sheffield (Deer) Park

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History dude

This thread has arisen from members interests from the thread on Sheffield Rivers, the connection with the bridge over the Sheaf into Sheffield Park.

For those who don't know about the Park, it was a MASSIVE deer park, with the Manor Lodge in the center of it. The boundary can be worked out. Starting at Sheaf Bridge it went along to the Sheaf's junction with the Don, following that river for a short distance then roughly follow the Sheffield Parkway till it reaches the Car Brook. Then turning up following the Manor Estate, to the Manor Top and along Hurlfield Road. Just pass Paddock Cresent it turns back towards Sheffield town, following the top side of Buck Wood. It keeps topside of Gleadless Road crosses over the Sheaf around Myrtle Road Bridge and then follows Bramall Lane to roughly Saint Mary's Road, where it then takes a sharpe turn back to the Sheaf, following it back to the Sheaf Bridge start.

The first reference to the Park is in 1332, but it was probably a lot older than that. By about 1750, it had gone, turned into farmland.

However in 1692 local people said it had at one time 3000 deer in it. Even in 1637 it still had 1200 deer! It also had some of the biggest Oak and Walnut Trees in the country. One had a trunk 13 foot in diameter. Another was capable of sheltering 250 horsemen under its branches.

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The following posts and quotes have been moved into this Topic

Steve

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A castle is defined as a fortified, defensive structure to protect from and ward off enemy attacks.

A lodge is defined as a house or retreat often near the entrance to a park or hunting grounds.

(both from wikipedia)

So on that basis the Manor is more of a lodge than a castle.

Has it ever been used as an armoured fortified defence against attack?

There were several "lodges" near some of the entrances to Sheffield Park and Harrison in 1637 calls the Manor "Sheffield Lodge". However by that time it had been downgraded in status, from what it was in Tudor times. It was of course rebuilt in the 1570's to house Mary Stuart. As she was under protective custody, it was built to be strong and very secure and of course it later came under attack in the Cival War showing how important it was.

On bayleaf's point. We know stone tiles came from Shiregreen for the roof in 1487. But also the workmen would have to have come largly from the town. So they are unlikly to wade in the Sheaf everyday, especially during winter!

The fact also that the Sheaf floods too was also used to advantage. As the minerals etc washed down stream then depoisted on the flood plain made great growing conditions for hay making. An area called the Rowlee on the other east side of the Sheaf was very productive and 15th Century accounts show hay from there being used for horse feed etc in Sheffield Castle. Transported there by carts, so another good reason for having a bridge too.

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DaveH

There were several "lodges" near some of the entrances to Sheffield Park and Harrison in 1637 calls the Manor "Sheffield Lodge". However by that time it had been downgraded in status, from what it was in Tudor times. It was of course rebuilt in the 1570's to house Mary Stuart. As she was under protective custody, it was built to be strong and very secure and of course it later came under attack in the Cival War showing how important it was.

If there were several lodges, and I am sure there were, do we have a list of them, their locations and weather any of them still have any visible remains.

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History dude

If you discount the Manor itself there were at least 4 lodges, plus a hunting stand. There's nothing left of any of them, but some later became farms. The most obvious one became Park Farm, which sad to say DaveH was demolished to make way for the place that gets a lot of love on each of your threads! :unsure:

The next would have been near the entrance to the Park at the main entrance after crossing Sheaf Bridge. A third could have been where that funny shaped building called Talbot Lodge is. I did think at one time it might even have been it! But I doubt it now. The fourth was possibly around Cricket Inn Road area, where it joins with Manor Lane. As there was a gate to Attercliffe near Woodburn area. In fact many of the lodges were placed near gates to the park. There is also the possibilty that Crab Tree Farm, located where the hotel is on the Parkway, was believed to be one. There's an aerial photo on picture Sheffield that shows the farm, the only known image (to me) of it. The Stand, was where Stand House School is. This was a building that nobody lived in, but was used to watch the hunt from. However it was "new" in 1699, so wasn't there when Mary was in Sheffield.

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Oldbloke

Could the property marked on early maps as Park Cottage on Bacon Lane near to Bacon Lane Bridge have been the Attercliffe Lodge? Bacon Lane used to continue to meet Manor Lane and Cricket Inn Road. Of course the bridge wouldn't have been there before the canal cut Bacon Lane.

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History dude

Could the property marked on early maps as Park Cottage on Bacon Lane near to Bacon Lane Bridge have been the Attercliffe Lodge? Bacon Lane used to continue to meet Manor Lane and Cricket Inn Road. Of course the bridge wouldn't have been there before the canal cut Bacon Lane.

It's quite possible. I think also there might have been some later additions of lodges as the park didn't stay static and changed quite a bit. You also find in various documents references to buildings that had gone out of use even before the 1680's. Without any images of these buildings it's impossible to say how long it's been there. But I think the temptation to rebuild a lodge to a make it a farm or cottage was MASSIVE, so it wouldn't suprise me if a few more were lodges. Also bear in mind that hunting practices of the rich have changed over time, so the park and land after was taken over by game keeepers houses.

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DaveH

If you discount the Manor itself there were at least 4 lodges, plus a hunting stand. There's nothing left of any of them, but some later became farms. The most obvious one became Park Farm, which sad to say DaveH was demolished to make way for the place that gets a lot of love on each of your threads! :unsure:

You have left the exact location a bit cryptic there History Dude.

I have a general love of most of this south east area of Sheffield

So are we talking about the Manor Estate, Norfolk Park Estate, Arbourthorne, Manor Top, Norfolk School?

Can you be a bit more specific?

It could have been at a location I walked past every day at one time if it was in any of these areas.

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History dude

This thread has arisen from members interests from the thread on Sheffield Rivers, the connection with the bridge over the Sheaf into Sheffield Park.

For those who don't know about the Park, it was a MASSIVE deer park, with the Manor Lodge in the center of it. The boundary can be worked out. Starting at Sheaf Bridge it went along to the Sheaf's junction with the Don, following that river for a short distance then roughly follow the Sheffield Parkway till it reaches the Car Brook. Then turning up following the Manor Estate, to the Manor Top and along Hurlfield Road. Just pass Paddock Cresent it turns back towards Sheffield town, following the top side of Buck Wood. It keeps topside of Gleadless Road crosses over the Sheaf around Myrtle Road Bridge and then follows Bramall Lane to roughly Saint Mary's Road, where it then takes a sharpe turn back to the Sheaf, following it back to the Sheaf Bridge start.

The first reference to the Park is in 1332, but it was probably a lot older than that. By about 1750, it had gone, turned into farmland.

However in 1692 local people said it had at one time 3000 deer in it. Even in 1637 it still had 1200 deer! It also had some of the biggest Oak and Walnut Trees in the country. One had a trunk 13 foot in diameter. Another was capable of sheltering 250 horsemen under its branches.

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History dude

Park House Farm was demolished in the 1930's as this newspaper article shows. It was located on the corner of Hurlfield Road with the junction of East Bank Road on the School side of the road.

PS thanks for moving the others :)

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History dude

No maps have survivied of the Park itself. Harrison's Survey of 1637 clearly has a reference to the fact that a map of some kind was with it, but no-one has ever found it.

However the Park clearly left an impression on the ground, as Fairbank's map of 1795 shows. For now devided up into fields, the fields outside the Park on the Darnall side are long and narrow showing the earlier farming system. The map below also shows the field names and areas from Harrison's Survey and a later Survey from 1685 (ACM S78) that I've put in, including the people who at that time (1685) where living there.

By the way I translated the old document ACM S78 and sent a typed up copy to Sheffield Archives for historians to use.

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DaveH

Park House Farm was demolished in the 1930's as this newspaper article shows. It was located on the corner of Hurlfield Road with the junction of East Bank Road on the School side of the road.

PS thanks for moving the others :)

Thanks History Dude. I know the very location.

Demolished to make way for a bit of the Arbourthorne.

...and of course all my posts carry the "We love Arbourthorne" signature seen below

(actually it is the logo of Arbourthorne community church which meets in the centre at the old Hurlfield school site, - so very close to the lodge location)

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Bayleaf

I knew I'd got this somewhere, notes from a talk given by Mel Jones recently, entitled "Sheffield's Medieval Park, a re-examination of its role."

Parks were created by noble and knightly families, by archbishops and bishops, and attached to monasteries, nunneries and colleges.

Like many others, Sheffield Park was roughly circular, or rectangular with rounded corners, because of the cost of the fence (park pale) which was in the form of posts and rails or a wall, both usually on banks.

Sheffield Park is an example of a baronial castle park, with the castle on its edge and the park extending away from it like a big balloon.

From the beginning of the 13th century a licence had to be obtained from the king to create a deer park. Often a right of free warren was given, leading subsequently to the creation of a park.

More than 80 grants of free warren were granted in South Yorkshire in the medieval period, nearly 30 leading to the creation of a park. Sheffield Park however pre-dated the issuing of park licences.

The park was a place which reflected the Lord's power and status. At its greatest extent it covered 2,462 acres (1,000 hectares) and was 8 miles (13km) in circumference, and was highly visible in the landscape.

It was a place of recreation, somewhere to ride, joust, practise archery, to fish and to boat, and to engage in falconry.

However, it is now strongly believed by most scholars that parks were not primarily for hunting. Rather, they were deer farms.

The Royal forest or the Lord's Chase were where hunting took place 'par force de chiens', where a single wild deer was chased for hours before it collapsed from exhaustion.

In the park, another method, the 'drive' or 'bow and stable' method was used which involved driving the deer into nets or towards archers. This was most often done by servants rather than masters. The Talbot dog, which carried the family name of the Shrewsburys was a scenting hound used in the 'par force de chiens' and the 'drive/bow and stable' methods.

Although post-medieval in origin the Turret House and the Hall in the Ponds appear to have performed a recreational function. The Turret House, in part at least, was a 'standing' or 'prospect house' from which the park could be viewed. An inventory of 1582 suggests that the Hall in the Ponds was a park banqueting house.

The park as a place of production.

A medieval park was a game larder, but it was much more besides. It was also a major producer of wood and timber, and a place for quarrying building stone or mining coal and ironstone.

In Sheffield Park records show that the trees produced a staggeringly varied resource. They existed as un-pollarded timber trees, pollards, coppice woods and holly hags.

Manorial Rolls of the 1440's show that these produced timber and wood for building repairs in the castle and town, for fencing the park, for scaffolding, firewood, charcoal making, for a variety of small crafts, and for fascines for repairing dams and weirs on the water-power sites.

Acorns were fed to pigs in the pannage season, and holly was fodder for deer and cattle in winter.

In the 1440's the quarries in the park supplied building stone for repairing houses in the market-place, a fulling-mill, the lord's corn-mill, and a dairy in the park. There was also a 'mine of sea-coal' that was still there in in the 17th Century when it was said it 'yeildeth great profit unto the Lord'.

In the 1440's there were also nearly 20 leased pastures and 2 leased hay meadows.

Although the Park was a private space, it was an integral part of the local economy.

But was it a designed landscape? Some now believe the medieval lordly landscapes were planned with great precision. Was the location of Sheffield park deliberately contrived in the early medieval period to give the most pleasurable backdrop to the castle as well as being a status symbol, game larder and source of other valuable resources?

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RichardB

An excellent read, Thank you Bayleaf. ;-)

I knew I'd got this somewhere, notes from a talk given by Mel Jones recently, entitled "Sheffield's Medieval Park, a re-examination of its role."

Parks were created by noble and knightly families, by archbishops and bishops, and attached to monasteries, nunneries and colleges.

Like many others, Sheffield Park was roughly circular, or rectangular with rounded corners, because of the cost of the fence (park pale) which was in the form of posts and rails or a wall, both usually on banks.

Sheffield Park is an example of a baronial castle park, with the castle on its edge and the park extending away from it like a big balloon.

From the beginning of the 13th century a licence had to be obtained from the king to create a deer park. Often a right of free warren was given, leading subsequently to the creation of a park.

More than 80 grants of free warren were granted in South Yorkshire in the medieval period, nearly 30 leading to the creation of a park. Sheffield Park however pre-dated the issuing of park licences.

The park was a place which reflected the Lord's power and status. At its greatest extent it covered 2,462 acres (1,000 hectares) and was 8 miles (13km) in circumference, and was highly visible in the landscape.

It was a place of recreation, somewhere to ride, joust, practise archery, to fish and to boat, and to engage in falconry.

However, it is now strongly believed by most scholars that parks were not primarily for hunting. Rather, they were deer farms.

The Royal forest or the Lord's Chase were where hunting took place 'par force de chiens', where a single wild deer was chased for hours before it collapsed from exhaustion.

In the park, another method, the 'drive' or 'bow and stable' method was used which involved driving the deer into nets or towards archers. This was most often done by servants rather than masters. The Talbot dog, which carried the family name of the Shrewsburys was a scenting hound used in the 'par force de chiens' and the 'drive/bow and stable' methods.

Although post-medieval in origin the Turret House and the Hall in the Ponds appear to have performed a recreational function. The Turret House, in part at least, was a 'standing' or 'prospect house' from which the park could be viewed. An inventory of 1582 suggests that the Hall in the Ponds was a park banqueting house.

The park as a place of production.

A medieval park was a game larder, but it was much more besides. It was also a major producer of wood and timber, and a place for quarrying building stone or mining coal and ironstone.

In Sheffield Park records show that the trees produced a staggeringly varied resource. They existed as un-pollarded timber trees, pollards, coppice woods and holly hags.

Manorial Rolls of the 1440's show that these produced timber and wood for building repairs in the castle and town, for fencing the park, for scaffolding, firewood, charcoal making, for a variety of small crafts, and for fascines for repairing dams and weirs on the water-power sites.

Acorns were fed to pigs in the pannage season, and holly was fodder for deer and cattle in winter.

In the 1440's the quarries in the park supplied building stone for repairing houses in the market-place, a fulling-mill, the lord's corn-mill, and a dairy in the park. There was also a 'mine of sea-coal' that was still there in in the 17th Century when it wa said it 'yelideth great profit unto the Lord'.

In the 1440's there were also nearly 20 leased pastures and 2 leased hay meadows.

Although the Park was a private space, it was an integral part of the local economy.

But was it a designed landscape? Some now believe the medieval lordly landscapes were planned with great precision. Was the location of Sheffield park deliberately contrived in the early medieval period to give the most pleasurable backdrop to the castle as well as being a status symbol, game larder and source of other valuable resources?

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History dude

Yes great piece of work Bayleaf :)

It's also worth mentioning the lines of Walnut Trees that came up from the town to the Manor and another line to the Intake Gate. These trees formed a canopy so that you would be sheltered from the rain or sun as you travelled along the private path that went to the Manor. A photo of the remains of one of the trunks of these trees was in the collection of Harry Cowlishaw, but nobody knows what became of his MASSIVE collection of images after his death.

This is one of images from his collection. Stand House farm house.

Next images all connected with the private path

What it could have looked like from a painting of Nonsuch Palace.

The only bit of the private path to survive was the small section that was at the side of Elm Tree bakery shown in these two images:

At the end of this path leading to Hurlfield road was the Intake Gate. These were replaced from probably wooden ones to these stone ones in 1685. A few years later Burrows Trippet bought them from the Duke and moved them to his farm house, where they still stand to this day at Richmond. Though his house has now gone.

Using the same stone as the gates the wall extended right down Pit Lane and the picture below shows a section of it (often rebuilt) in the gardens of the houses of Manor Estate before they were demolished. The small tight fitting parts are the original parts of the deer park wall.

Next two images of the Talbot Dog. I believe the breed has now gone. The hunting book by Thomas Cockaine, was connected with George Talbot.

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SteveHB

It's also worth mentioning the lines of Walnut Trees that came up from the town to the Manor and another line to the Intake Gate. These trees formed a canopy so that you would be sheltered from the rain or sun as you travelled along the private path that went to the Manor. A photo of the remains of one of the trunks of these trees was in the collection of Harry Cowlishaw, but nobody knows what became of his massive collection of images after his death.

This is one of images from his collection. Stand House farm house.

Where abouts was Stand House farm please.

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History dude

Where Stand House School is on the Manor.

By the way the red bricked building on the corner of the junction of Manor Lane and Manor Park Cresent was the Cowlishaw house after they moved from the above. They called it Stand House too! It was built at the same time as Stand House was demolished.

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saw119

Hi, what part, if any, does the Old Queens Head pub play in this story. From what you describe it must have been quite close to the boundary given its proximity to the Sheaf. It also strikes me that the area of the deer park is surrounded, mostly, by river/water courses.

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Bayleaf

Hi, what part, if any, does the Old Queens Head pub play in this story. From what you describe it must have been quite close to the boundary given its proximity to the Sheaf. It also strikes me that the area of the deer park is surrounded, mostly, by river/water courses.

The Old Queen's Head is the place referred to above as The Hall in the Ponds.

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History dude

Hi, what part, if any, does the Old Queens Head pub play in this story. From what you describe it must have been quite close to the boundary given its proximity to the Sheaf. It also strikes me that the area of the deer park is surrounded, mostly, by river/water courses.

The building seems to have been used for the purpose of taking refreshment after fowling and fishing in the ponds. These ponds would have well stocked with fish and water fowl. And in the Elizabethen days if it moved they would have eaten it. Swan pies, duck pies etc...

The 1582 inventory for Sheffield Manor and Castle, lists it as a "Hall" from the contents this would in the same sense as "dinning Hall" like at one of the old universities.

The story of it being a washouse for Mary Stuart a 19th Century creation. With no evidence to back it up.

In a sense it's what it is today however only for the rich.

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History dude

Because the park was destroyed by the 1700's, no landscape gardens got to work on it, such as Brown. There are only a few parks left like that today that have lasted unchanged. So if you want to see what Sheffield Park would have been like back then you would have to go to one of them. I believe the nearest is Bradgate Park near Leicster. You can get a good view of that with Google image.

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saw119

The building seems to have been used for the purpose of taking refreshment after fowling and fishing in the ponds.

Sorry to be a pest, but were the ponds considered part of the park or separarte from them?

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DaveH

Yes great piece of work Bayleaf :)

It's also worth mentioning the lines of Walnut Trees that came up from the town to the Manor and another line to the Intake Gate. These trees formed a canopy so that you would be sheltered from the rain or sun as you travelled along the private path that went to the Manor. A photo of the remains of one of the trunks of these trees was in the collection of Harry Cowlishaw, but nobody knows what became of his massive collection of images after his death.

This is one of images from his collection. Stand House farm house.

Next images all connected with the private path

What it could have looked like from a painting of Nonsuch Palace.

The only bit of the private path to survive was the small section that was at the side of Elm Tree bakery shown in these two images:

At the end of this path leading to Hurlfield road was the Intake Gate. These were replaced from probably wooden ones to these stone ones in 1685. A few years later Burrows Trippet bought them from the Duke and moved them to his farm house, where they still stand to this day at Richmond. Though his house has now gone.

Using the same stone as the gates the wall extended right down Pit Lane and the picture below shows a section of it (often rebuilt) in the gardens of the houses of Manor Estate before they were demolished. The small tight fitting parts are the original parts of the deer park wall.

Next two images of the Talbot Dog. I believe the breed has now gone. The hunting book by Thomas Cockaine, was connected with George Talbot.

Good post History Dude.

...and i thought that the "Intake Gate" was at the end of my drive!

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History dude

Sorry to be a pest, but were the ponds considered part of the park or separarte from them?

Since they were all used by the Lords of the Manor (Earl of Shrewsbury and his descendents) and his guests they were part of the overall estate and so were connected with the Park as was the Castle.

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History dude

Sometime ago I attempted to reconstruct what Sheffield Park would look like in map form based on Harrison's Survey of 1637. I did transfer it to my computer, but couldn't find it :unsure: While searching for something else I have found it :) So here it is:

It should enlarge well on here so you can read the small print B)

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RichardB

Very interesting piece of work History Dude. Would maybe benefit from a simple modern overlay, he says, as if he knew how to do it.

Thanks Dude.

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madannie77

Where abouts was Stand House farm please.

Where Stand House School is on the Manor.

By the way the red bricked building on the corner of the junction of Manor Lane and Manor Park Cresent was the Cowlishaw house after they moved from the above. They called it Stand House too! It was built at the same time as Stand House was demolished.

Stand House in isolation on a map from just after the Great War

http://maps.nls.uk/view/100950155#zoom=5&lat=4166&lon=2126&layers=BT

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