peterwarr

Sheffield History Member
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About peterwarr

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peterwarr's Activity

  1. peterwarr added a post in a topic: The Bombshell Magazine   

    The Imperial War Museum has copies:  http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/publication/400000560.
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  2. peterwarr added a post in a topic: Great War Britain Sheffield   

    Another account -- with lots of pictures  http://www.pen-and-sword.co.uk/Sheffield-in-The-Great-War-Paperback/p/7098
     
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  3. peterwarr added a post in a topic: Sheffield in the Great War   

    Some people might be interested in the new book at http://www.pen-and-sword.co.uk/Sheffield-in-The-Great-War-Paperback/p/7098 .  This includes little-known details of new and old hospitals, changed factories, and the events of everyday life in Sheffield in WW1 – all set in a framework of wider developments.  The city and nation in 1914 are described, and many features are illustrated through particular Sheffielders and places.  With lots of pictures!  (Author’s royalties go direct to the Royal British Legion for use in Sheffield.)
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  4. peterwarr added a post in a topic: Conscientious Objectors During World War One   

    As suggested in the “Sheffield during the war” forum, I’ve now been in touch with Richmond Castle about imprisoned COs in WW1.

    “Conscientious objection” took a range of forms – some more definite than others. The complete refusers are usually termed “absolutists”, but there were many others with a less extreme stance. Absolutists were likely to be imprisoned, but Richmond Castle has no records of COs imprisoned there. The “Richmond 16”, who left behind graffiti which is still visible, were locked up in the Castle for only a few days before being sent to France. Their death sentences were later reduced to imprisonment. The Castle has almost no information about the 16, but it appears that none of them came from Sheffield.

    In addition, Richmond Castle was one base for the officially-sanctioned Non-Combatant Corps, so there were a lot of original COs there – ones who had accepted a non-fighting role in the war and were not imprisoned. Some men moved between different CO positions. John Bonsall, previously living in Duke Street with a haulage business in Bard Street, started as an absolutist and then moved to become a cook in an army camp in France.

    There was no requirement for a religious basis for a man’s CO position. Some claimants before the Sheffield Military Tribunal argued that Socialism was their religion.

    I’ve also been in touch with the Peace Pledge Union. It turns out that their WW1 material about individual COs is also limited, but they’re working to compile a more complete register. They told me about brothers William and Joseph Parkin, who were both imprisoned with hard labour in Wormwood Scrubs and then Dartmoor. They had been bone cutters in a Sheffield cutlery factory, but it’s not known which one.

    I guess we’re making progress, but the jigsaw is a long way from being complete!

    Peter
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  5. peterwarr added a post in a topic: Sheffield Quakers In World War One   

    I’ve now been in touch with Richmond Castle about imprisoned COs in WW1.

    “Conscientious objection” took a range of forms – some more definite than others. The complete refusers are usually termed “absolutists”, but there were many others with a less extreme stance. Absolutists were likely to be imprisoned, but Richmond Castle has no records of COs imprisoned there. The “Richmond 16” (above) who left behind the graffiti, were locked up in the Castle for only a few days before being sent to France. Their death sentences were later reduced to imprisonment. The Castle has almost no information about the 16, but it appears that none of them came from Sheffield.

    In addition, Richmond Castle was one base for the officially-sanctioned Non-Combatant Corps, so there were a lot of original COs there – ones who had accepted a non-fighting role in the war and were not imprisoned. Some men moved between different CO positions. John Bonsall, previously living in Duke Street with a haulage business in Bard Street, started as an absolutist and then moved to become a cook in an army camp in France.

    Most COs were not themselves Quakers. Indeed, there was no requirement for a religious basis for a man’s position. (Some claimants before the Sheffield Military Tribunal argued that Socialism was their religion.)

    I’ve also been in touch with the Peace Pledge Union. It turns out that their WW1 material about individual COs is also limited, but they’re working to compile a more complete register. They told me about brothers William and Joseph Parkin, who were both imprisoned with hard labour in Wormwood Scrubs and then Dartmoor. They had been bone cutters in a Sheffield cutlery factory, but it’s not known which one.

    I guess we’re making progress, but the jigsaw is a long way from being complete!

    Peter

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  6. peterwarr added a post in a topic: Conscientious Objectors During World War One   

    Many thanks Flatlander for the very interesting material about Walter Morrison.

    I suspect (but am not sure) that he would not usually be included in lists of “conscientious objectors”; I think those are defined in terms of refusing conscription from the outsel. Quite a lot of men were later imprisoned for refusing to obey military orders.

    That doesn’t make his story any less interesting! Thanks again.
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  7. peterwarr added a post in a topic: Conscientious Objectors During World War One   

    Thanks to all. The Sheffield Military Tribunal did exempt many men who were willing to do work defined as of national importance, and serving in the Royal Army Medical Corps or the Non-Combatant Corps was certainly acceptable.

    Instead, I’m hoping to learn about the minority who refused any work which would help the war effort and were thus imprisoned. I’m now wondering if they would have been arrested at a later stage – for example when they refused to join their unit as instructed. I’ve separately located some arrests of previously-enlisted deserters, and these were not noted in a newspaper, so perhaps that’s what happened to the COs who were imprisoned.

    Some facts would be useful to balance all this guesswork!

    Peter
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  8. peterwarr added a post in a topic: Sheffield Quakers In World War One   

    Looking at the interesting information from Dunsbyowl (25 July 2013), it's puzzling why Mr Hancocks was in jail in June 1915. Conscription was not introduced until January 1916, so he wasn't there because he refused to be called up. Some other anti-war activity?

    There's a lot we don't know!

    Peter
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  9. peterwarr added a post in a topic: Conscientious Objectors During World War One   

    Were any conscientious objectors in Sheffield sent to prison during World War One?

    Checking through the city’s newspaper reports of local Military Tribunal sessions, I see that most claims for exemption from call-up were based on commercial or family arguments. The few individuals arguing from a position of religion or conscience appear to have accepted medical or non-combatant roles as an alternative to becoming servicemen.

    Despite reading a lot of reports, I can’t find any “absolutists” in Sheffield – men who refused to serve in any capacity and were sent to jail (more than 5,000 nationwide).

    I suppose it’s possible that those cases were kept out of the papers. But if so I’d expect their story to be publicised in other ways, and that’s not apparent.

    Do you know of any such cases, please? It would be great to learn about them.

    Many thanks

    Peter
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  10. peterwarr added a post in a topic: "relief Work" After Ww1   

    I’ve become very intrigued by “relief work” in the city for unemployed men after World War One. What jobs were done, and how was it arranged?

    As far as I know, work funded by the Council or the city’s two Boards of Guardians included the construction of Prince of Wales Road, Whirlowdale Road through Ecclesall Woods, road work in Pitsmoor and Twentywell, widening Abbey Lane and Abbeydale Road, relaying some tram tracks, constructing Wadsley Service Reservoir, setting out recreation grounds, levelling slopes at Wincobank, garden-building at Firvale, and contributing to other improvements.

    Does that seem right? And what else was done at that time? For how long did it go on? Anything else?

    Any ideas/information?

    Many thanks

    Peter
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  11. peterwarr added a post in a topic: Cammell Laird In Ww1   

    Cammell Laird's factory in Nottingham was newly built as one of the government's 200+ "national factories".

    National factories employed a high proportion of women, and were required to make welfare provisions more elaborate than was usual at the time.

    Separate national factories in Sheffield were operated by Firths and Hadfields.

    Sorry I don't know anything about Annie. No lists of staff in the Sheffield's national factories are now available, and that may be the case in Nottingham.
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  12. peterwarr added a post in a topic: Americans In Ww1 Sheffield.   

    I've now learned some more. Here's a brief extract:-

    American troops also put in an appearance, preparing for service in Europe and elsewhere. A small number of US doctors gained experience in the city’s military hospitals, and in May 1918 around 450 airmen arrived for attachment to Coal Aston airfield and repair depot . On 16 May, these were treated in the Town Hall to afternoon tea with the Lord Mayor and civic dignitaries, followed by speeches, patriotic cheers and the two countries’ national anthems. American Independence Day (4 July) saw a baseball game between two American teams at Bramall Lane. This event, watched by around 20,000 people with proceeds to American and British charities, also included an athletic competition between US and UK troops, singing and folk-dancing by Sheffield school-children, and military and popular music from the two countries. It closed with the ‘Star-Spangled Banner’ and ‘God Save the King’.
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  13. peterwarr added a post in a topic: Is This Wharncliffe Hospital   



    The men in the photo are wearing their “going-out” uniform, being able to spend some time outside the hospital. Several canteens and other facilities were created in the city centre for convalescent soldiers.

    Here’s a list of auxiliary hospitals in the Third Northern General Hospital, including Western Road. Wharncliffe War Hospital was administered separately from the Third Northern Hospital. (There are lots of photos in Picture Sheffield.) Commonside was one of the “fever hospitals” administered by the city.


    UNITS OF THE THIRD NORTHERN GENERAL HOSPITAL

    This large military hospital was centred on a ‘Base’ in Ecclesall Road, and also occupied buildings across the city and nearby. Details changed slightly from year to year, but enlargement meant that around 4,600 beds had become available in all sections by 1918. (Bramall Lane Hospital – last in the list below – started work in that year.) Principal locations and sizes of units in 1918 are listed in the sequence of their opening:

    Primary units (2602 beds in total)

    Ecclesall Road Base, 438 beds
    Royal Infirmary, 87 beds
    Royal Hospital, 80 beds
    Winter Street Hospital, 134 beds
    Firvale Hospital, 462 beds
    Carterknowle School, 115 beds
    Lydgate Lane School, 130 beds
    Ranmoor School, 110 beds
    Greystones School, 150 beds
    Shiregreen School, 145 beds
    Firshill School, 150 beds
    Western Road School, 70 beds
    Ecclesall Infirmary, 200 beds
    Endcliffe Hall, 130 beds
    Oakbrook Officers’ Hospital, 51 beds
    Bramall Lane Cricket Pavilion, 150 beds


    Auxiliary and convalescent hospitals

    In addition, around thirty affiliated institutions provided about 2,000 beds for less serious cases. Within Sheffield were St John’s Hospital at Dore and the Woofindin Convalescent Home in Whiteley Wood, and outside the city were (for example) Longshaw Lodge at Grindleford, Aston Hall in Derby, Loversall Hall in Doncaster, and the Devonshire Hospital in Buxton.


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  14. peterwarr added a post in a topic: Is This Wharncliffe Hospital   

    Thanks Vox, fingers crossed.
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  15. peterwarr added a post in a topic: Is This Wharncliffe Hospital   

    Help, please!

    I'm unable to paste in my Word Reply; what am I doing wrong?

    Peter
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